The Framing of Immigration
A BUZZFLASH GUEST CONTRIBUTION
by George Lakoff and Sam Ferguson
Framing is at the center of the recent immigration debate. Simply framing it as about “immigration” has shaped its politics, defining what count as “problems” and constraining the debate to a narrow set of issues. The language is telling. The linguistic framing is remarkable: frames for illegal immigrant, illegal alien, illegals, undocumented workers, undocumented immigrants, guest workers, temporary workers, amnesty, and border security. These linguistic expressions are anything but neutral. Each framing defines the problem in its own way, and the hence constrains the solutions needed to address that problem.
The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we will analyze the framing used in the public debate. Second, we suggest some alternative framing to highlight important concerns left out of the current debate. Our point is to show that the relevant issues go far beyond what is being discussed, and that acceptance of the current framing impoverishes the discussion.
* * *
On May 15th, in an address from the Oval Office, President Bush presented his proposal for “comprehensive immigration reform.” The term “immigration reform” evokes an issue-defining conceptual frame — The Immigration Problem Frame — a frame that imposes a structure on the current situation, defines a set of “problems” with that situation, and circumscribes the possibility for “solutions.”
“Reform,” when used in politics, indicates there is a pressing issue that needs to be addressed — take “medicare reform,” “lobbying reform,” “social security reform.” The noun that’s attached to reform — “immigration” — points to where the problem lies. Whatever noun is attached to “reform” becomes the locus of the problem and constrains what counts as a solution.
To illustrate, take “lobbying reform.” In the wake of the Jack Abramoff scandal, “lobbying reform” was all the talk in the media and on Capitol Hill. The problem defined by this frame has to do with lobbyists. As a “lobbyist” problem, the solutions focused on Congressional rules regarding lobbyists. The debate centered around compensated meals, compensated trips, access by former Congressmen (who inevitably become lobbyists) to the floor of the Senate and House of representatives, lobbying disclosure, lobbyists’access to Congressional staff and the period of time between leaving the Congress and becoming a registered lobbyists.
Indeed, if the reform needed is “lobbying reform,” these are reasonable solutions. But, the term “Congressional ethics reform” would have framed a problem of a much different nature, a problem with Congressmen. And it would allow very different reforms to count as solutions. After all, lobbyists are powerless if there’s nobody to accept a free meal, fly on a private plane, play a round of Golf in the Bahamas and, most importantly, accept the political contributions lobbyists raise on their behalf from special-interests with billions of dollars in business before the federal Government. A solution could, for example, have been Full Public Financing of Elections and free Airtime for political candidates as part of the licensing of the public’s airwaves to private corporations. The “lobbying reform” framing of the issue precluded such considerations from discussion, because they don’t count as solutions to the “lobbying” problem. Issue-defining frames are powerful.
“Immigration reform” also evokes an issue-defining frame. Bush, in his speech, pointed out the problems that this frame defines. First, the Government has “not been in complete control of its borders.” Second, millions are able to “sneak across our border” seeking to make money. Finally, once here, illegal immigrants sometimes forge documents to get work, skirting labor laws, and deceiving employers who attempt to follow the law. They may take jobs away from legal immigrants and ordinary Americans,...
...Note taking and note making is one of the most fundamental and important tasks that students must do. It cannot be doubted that a student that takes notes during lectures is more likely to achieve a higher grade compared to a student that does not. However, note taking might not have the positive effect the student wants if it is not done properly. “What to note down, how much to note down and how detailed the notes should be, takes time to develop” (Open University Malaysia [OUM], 2011, p. 92). Thus, this essay will focus on explaining the different methods of note making, how to take notes from printed materials and ways to develop good note taking skills during lectures. But first, an important question needs to be addressed. Why even take notes in the first place?
This is without a doubt an easy question to ask, considering the fact that most students have access to the lecture notes and text books which might be heavier than they would prefer it to be. However, it is a common misconception, made by countless number of students, to be under the impression that their text books would cover everything they need to know (Coacher, 2011). Everything that might be evaluated in assessments might not be in the textbook and it is unlikely that one would recollect everything discussed in every lecture of each...
...JOURNAL – NOTE TAKING AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS WITH LEARNING DIFFICULTIES : WHAT SUPPORTS ARE NEEDED? (Ann Maydosz and Sharon A Raver, Old Dominion University)
Lecture notes play an important role in preparing for examinations, as it may ensure the success of students. Many students do not have adequate note-taking skills, and this contribute a lot to the creation of incomplete and unrelated notes (Kiewra, 2002). Researchers suggest that the act of note-taking can engage students in learning tasks and deepen their understanding and ability to apply new material (Katayama & Crooks, 2003). Note-taking offers three important premises for university students. First, the act of note-taking may have an influence on the encoding function of the brain, which engages the learner’s attention and subsequently moves the information into long-term memory. Secondly, note-taking will make the students less dependent on their instructor’s notes, as they contain personally meaningful information that might help in the recall process. Thirdly, it may help students with learning difficulties.
To begin with, note-taking is essential to the student’s academic success (Kiewra & Benton, 1988; Titsworth, 2001). In taking notes, students relate lecture topics to their own background knowledge, which in turn may increase their...
...Should a Student Take Notes During College?
When students reach college-level academics, note taking becomes a major role in the effective learning of college students. Studies have shown that effective note taking results in higher academic grades. There are a high number of students in colleges today that are receiving poor grades due to failing tests or quizzes over material that was taught to them but not remembered. The vast majority of these students have poor note taking skills. There are many advantages of effective note taking and different ways to take effective notes.
Students that are earning marginal or poor grades either do not take notes or fail to take effective enough notes. Have these students not been taught on how to take effective notes? Students, who take effective notes during lecture, are more likely to learn and remember subject matter better than students who do not take notes. A lot of students today are simply not taking notes during class. During an observation of a class of thirty students, only three or four students actually took notes during the lecture. These three to four students are receiving above a 3.5 grade point average. The rest of the students paid attention to the lecture, but did not write or type anything down as notes....
... Taking notes during lectures is very beneficial to students in a number of ways. One, which is to remember and it will save student time relying on memory later on. You can be an amazing listener, but unless you have good note taking skills, it will be hard for you to remember what the teacher said in previous lectures. For notes to become useful, they should be well structured and you can go through them over and over so that the information remains fresh days prior to the exam.
Reviewing and pre-reviewing are two main steps students should do before they step into the next class. It is very beneficial for students to review the notes previously taken notes to help link between what has been previously taught and what is to come next class. This does not take much time but it will help keep the information fresh in the students minds. Also, skimming through the textbook before getting into the classroom will help students become acquainted with the main notions and concepts and this, in turn, will make it easy to follow with the teachers lecture. Moreover, usually, most students feel hesitated whether to jot down some notes or not; this happens when they do not know if the information is important or not. In this case, the best way is to take those notes when you are in doubt. The reason is that it is better to write too much than not enough.
This is where not knowing...
...locating materials in encyclopedias and other |
|should feel free to cite the article in your speech on the basis |reference works |
|of the abstract alone. |Often provide abstracts of journal and magazine articles |
|One of the advantages of using the Internet for research is that |A and c only |
|you can locate information by conducting both subject searches | |
|and keyword searches. |You are researching a speech and need to learn how the meaning of|
|When taking research notes, it is important to make a distinction|the word “science” has changed historically. Which of the |
|between direct quotations, paraphrases, and your own ideas. |following would be the best reference source to consult? |
|None of the above |Roget’s Thesaurus |
| |Encyclopedia Britannica |
|Which of the following is a true statement? |Oxford English Dictionary |
|You can almost always count on the reliability of Internet |Bartlett’s...
...Immigration is the movement of people from other countries that come into another country of especially which they are not a native in order to settle there. Immigration is made for diverse of reasons. The most important of these are escape from poverty, economic, social, political reasons, natural sisaster, unimployment and live in clover. Other causes are retirement migration from rich countries to lower-cost countries with better climate is a new style of international immigration. For example British citizens would rather to immigrate to Spain or İtaly or retired Canadian citizens to the US. While for some migrants education is the primary reason, some migrants has personal reasons, relationship between family or a partner or marriage. As can be seen there are many reasons to migrate and in more detailed examined we can see more reasons.
Over the past quarter century the number of international migrants has doubled to more than 200m this trend is set to increase. (See Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron and Meera Balarajan in book, “Exceptional People”) If rich countries were to admit enough migrants from poor countries to expand their own labour forces by a mere 3%, the world would be richer, according to one estimate, by $356 billion a year. (2) For instance if implemented within a well thought out policy, migration can be the most effective tool yet devised for reducing global poverty.
There are pros and cons of migration for...
...Running head: Immigration
Which Way Home by Rebecca Cammisa, is a documentary that follows a group of children, between the ages 9 and 17. The children in the film are from Central America and are attempting to cross the Mexican border into America. The film demonstrates the struggling lives
that these children have in their native country, which is why they decided to migrate. On the
journey to America, they find out all the other dangers and different struggles they have to face,
questioning their decision of migrating. The documentary talks about the increased amounts of
children migrating alone to the United States. Under the program, Unaccompanied Child Immigrants, border patrol apprehends about 100,000 children trying to enter the US each year and
many of those children, sadly, are found dead. Children found either around or on the US-Mexican border, are either taken by American or Mexican patrol officers. Those apprehended are then
sent to either an American shelter or a Mexican shelter to await deportation.
The documentary focuses on two particular children, Kevin a 14 year old and Fito a 13
year old. Both are migrating from Honduras which is were the majority of unaccompanied children come from. These children have to travel 1, 450 miles, alone, just to get to the GuatemalanMexican border. Once in Mexico, these children have to travel for months, even a year to...
...their infancy when an assassin’s bullets struck him down November 22, 1963” (Understanding the American Promise). Kennedy died before he could fulfill the many promises he made to Americans of economic growth. The radio was the way Gloria and her family learned of the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. This was a major concern for her and her fellow Mexican immigrants because John F. Kennedy was an advocate to bettering the immigration systems. “While JFK’s right legacy is widely recognized, less attention has been paid to his record championing reform that ended an era of deeply discriminatory immigration laws” (Doris). President Kennedy had a power and great had a great vision for immigration that could change the face of America forever. She was in shock and in utter sadness when she learned of the news. The whole country could not believe what had happen. The Immigration Act of 1965 eliminated ancestry, race, or the national origin as a basis for immigrants. It created many fundamentals that still stand in today’s system for legal immigration into the United States.
Not speaking English and not having anyone to teach her made life harder for Gloria. The lack of understanding English kept her from having American friends. This made her feel very isolated and like she was in a “deep hole”. The feeling of being isolated was not a feeling Gloria was used to. It wasn’t until she was a little...