Immigration to the United States is a complex demographic phenomenon that has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of the United States. The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility, crime, and voting behavior. American immigration history can be viewed in four epochs: the colonial period, post-1965, the mid-19th century, and the start of the 20th century. Each period brought distinct national groups, races and ethnicities to the United States. During the 17th century, approximately 175,000 Englishmen migrated to Colonial America. Over half of all European immigrants to Colonial America during the 17th and 18th centuries arrived as indentured servants. The mid-19th century saw mainly an influx from northern Europe; the early 20th-century mainly from Southern and Eastern Europe; post-1965 mostly from Latin America and Asia.
The history of immigration to the United States is a continuing story of peoples from more populated continents, particularly Europe and also Africa and Asia, crossing oceans to the new land. Historians do not treat the first indigenous settlers as immigrants. Starting around 1600 British and other Europeans settled primarily on the east coast. Later Africans were brought as slaves. During the nation's history, the growing country experienced successive waves of immigration which rose and fell over time, particularly from Europe, with the cost of transoceanic transportation sometimes paid by travelers becoming indentured servants after their arrival in the New World. At other times, immigration rules became more restrictive. With the ending of numerical restrictions in 1965 and the advent of cheap air travel immigration has increased from Asia and Latin America. Colonial era 1600-1775
The first, and longest, era from 1607 to 1775 brought European immigrants (primarily those of British, German and Dutch descent) and African slaves. British
By far the largest group of new arrivals comprised the British. They were not exactly "immigrants" for they remained within the British Empire. Over 90% became farmers. Large numbers of young men and women came alone, as indentured servants. Their passage was paid by employers in the colonies who needed help on the farms, or shops. They were provided food, housing, clothing and training but did not receive wages. At the end of the indenture (usually around age 21) they were free to marry and start their own farm Chesapeake
The first successful English colony started in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia. Once tobacco was found to be a profitable crop, many plantations were established along the Chesapeake Bay in Virginia and Maryland. New England
A few hundred English Pilgrims, seeking their religious freedom in the New World, established a small settlement near Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1620. Tens of thousands of English Puritans came to Boston, Massachusetts and adjacent areas from about 1629 to 1640 to create a land dedicated to their religion . The earliest New England colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire were established along the northeast coast. Large scale immigration to this region ended before 1700, but a small steady trickle of later arrivals continued. The peak New England settlement occurred from about 1629 to about 1641 when about 20,000 Puritan settlers arrived mostly from the East Anglian parts of England (Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Kent, and East Sussex). In the next 150 years, their "Yankee" descendants largely filled in the New England states and parts of upstate New York. Dutch
The Dutch established settlements along the Hudson River in New York starting about 1626. Wealthy Dutch patroons set up large landed estates along the Hudson River and brought in farmers who became renters. Others...
...Higher Modern Studies
Immigration and the USA
Keir Lynch 5W1
Every year, 700,000 immigrants move to the United States of America in search of a better life with the hope of one day living the American Dream. It is not hard to see why the US is so appealing. As US citizen’s, immigrants can earn more and are protected with the rights of the constitution, they are less likely to be living in poverty and there are endless opportunities. Often, these pull factors exceed anything compared to what they would have in their native country. For example in Mexico roughly half of the population live on less than $5 a day. As a US citizen, you are protected by law with the national minimum wage of $7.25 per hour. Some believe that immigrants are damaging to the US and are worried that in 2043, whites will be a minority in their own country.
In 1990, the USImmigration Act (IMMACT) became law. This increased the limit of legal immigrants moving to the US each year from 500,000 to 700,000 and has family reunification as its main priority. This is on top 50,000 diversity visas for immigrants from countries from which few were emigrating, as well as 40,000 permanent job-related workers to benefit the US economy and 65,000 temporary worker visas. The temporary worker visas are seen to be controversial due to over ½ of those granted...
...Pre-DP Inquiry Skills
Immigration in the United States
The US is a nation of immigrants. This is a basic idea that has been drummed into every Americans head since their first history lesson. The US has been described as a pot of soup, a great tossed salad, and the melting pot of the world. Half a century ago was a time when people immigrated to the United States from around the world, coming to find their success, happiness here in the land of liberty, justice, and freedom. Now the climate for immigration has become hostile. Becoming a naturalized citizen can take years, with mountains of paperwork and incomprehensible laws. Even for the “two out of six” who were brought into the US illegally when they were young children, who had no idea of the laws they were breaking or memories of the land, they left behind. It has been argued that imposing looser immigration laws and a path to citizenship for those who are here illegally could take jobs away from ‘real Americans’. Nevertheless, paving a way for smart and talented people to immigrate to the U.S will enhance our economic productivity; contribute to the quality of America’s national life, and character.
US immigrants help to fuel the US economy. Immigrants in the US represent about “one in every six workers” (Immigration Reform, CFR). Because of this escalating...
...Asian Immigration to the United States
For the most part, Asians have had a rough time becoming equals in American society. But because of their hard work, and strong family ethics Asians as a whole have definitely become a keystone in the society of the United States.
The first Asians to arrive on American shores were the Chinese. Chinese people started immigrating en masse during the 19th century. Most of them worked as railroad workers or miners. The Chinese faced a lot of prejudices and discrimination upon their arrival, and throughout their lives. Chinese Americans entered the United States through Angel Island. Angel Island is the equivalent to Ellis Island, but instead of on the East coast, Angel Island is on the West Coast of California. “Political party caucuses, labor unions, and other organizations rallied against the immigration of yet another ‘inferior race’.” However, these hardships were endured and the Chinese continued to work hard. They earned very little money doing these hard, dangerous jobs, but it was all they could do. “Gold was discovered in California in 1848, eventually attracting thousands of Chinese miners and contract laborers. In 1850, just over 1,000 Asian immigrants entered the U.S., but ten years later, the figure had jumped to nearly 37,000, mostly Chinese.” 1 Upon arriving to the United States, the Chinese were promised roads paved in gold and great wages but wound up working hard jobs and making minimal...
'USImmigration Bill can lead to $30 Billion/Year Loss
Press Trust of India | Updated On: August 15, 2014 11:22 (IST)
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New Delhi: The Indian economy could lose $30 billion annually, with the IT industry
being the hardest hit if the Immigration Bill under consideration in the US Congress
becomes a law, Indian American Advisory Council of House Republican Conference of
US Parliament has said.
The IAAC, which advises US House of Representatives on India related issues, stated
the 'USImmigration Bill S744' calls for significantly cutting down on outsourcing of work
for certain visa holders that is mostly used by Indian firms and professionals.
"If the bill becomes a law, then India's GDP gets reduced by about $30 billion a year.
On top of that, employment situation will be badly hit. Direct impact will be 10 million
Indian IT Professionals will no longer have any work and 500,000 in the US," IAAC
Chairman Shalabh Kumar told PTI.
He said most of the Indian IT professionals are either working on H1B or L1 visas.
H1B Visa allows US companies to employ foreign professionals and L1 allows
employee of an international company to temporarily transfer an employee to a parent
branch or subsidiary...
America is known famously throughout the world with the nickname "The melting pot." The reason behind this is that America is extremely diverse and has many different people. Immigrants give America the chance to know the culture of many countries. They bring in their culture, religion, economic benefits, and ideology to America. I believe that the United States should allow legal immigrants from all over the world because they bring many benefits to it. Immigrants are a positive influence on United States of America.
Immigrants have been the start of this great nation. So why argue now that allowing foreign people into America is dangerous? Some people might argue that legal immigration is the cause of overpopulation. This is not true at all because immigrants make merely half of America's population (mruthydotcom). Out of them about 40% of them are illegal immigrants making the U.S border patrol responsible for them (world overpopulation). Another argument that might be brought up is that immigration causes environmental damage. This cannot be proven but we can prove that it is the American citizens themselves that cause this by their expensive lifestyle. Americans consume more per capita than the rest of the world (world overpopulation). Every one in United States has resources like water, electricity, and arable land for granted and we don't even realize what we can do with out the resources. If you compare...
...Immigration has long been a part of Canadian and United States history. Comparing the immigration policies of both countries gives insight into how they view the importance of having such regulations. Differences between Canada and the Unites States exist with respect to how immigration regulations affect relations between the two countries. Immigrants don’t just come from Mexico in to the United States as many believe. There is a flow ofimmigration between Canada and the United States, which means there must be peaceful relations as well. Immigrants in North America can enjoy rights of citizenship, and therefore have easier access to becoming a citizen.
Since Canada and the United States share similar policies, their view on foreign policy have similarities, but also some differences. Part of their view of immigration comes from the North American Free Trade Agreement. In order to understand the political aspects of both Canada and the United States, one has to understand how each country views NAFTA. This being understood, citizenship and immigration within the two countries go hand in hand. It is wise to analyze the benefits of an immigrant’s rights and accessibility to becoming a citizen. While both countries don’t just let anyone cross the border, Canada has a less developed foreign policy. With the increasing demand to regulate the policies regarding immigrants in the...
26 December 2013
Impact of Immigration on the U.S Economy
America’s immigrants are more diverse than they were a century ago. In 1910, immigrants from Europe and Canada comprised 95 percent of the foreign-born population in the United States. Today’s immigrants come from a much broader of countries, including large populations from Latin American and Asia. Not surprisingly, the single largest home country of today’s immigrants is Mexico. All told, immigrants from Latin American and the Caribbean make up 53 percent of the U.S. foreign-born population. (Tim Vettel)
Immigrants are both better and worse educated than U.S.-born citizens. At one end of the spectrum, more than 11 percent of foreign-born workers have advanced degrees—slightly above the fraction of Americans with post-college degrees. Even more striking, more than 1.9 percent of immigrants have PhDs, almost twice the share of U.S.-born citizens with doctorates (1.1 percent). At the other end of the spectrum, however, immigrants are much more likely than U.S.-born citizens to have less than a high school education. Roughly 30 percent of immigrants lack a high school diploma, nearly four times the figure for U.S.- born citizens. (Robert J Lalonde)
The most recent academic research suggests that, on average, immigrants raise the overall standard of living of American workers by boosting wages and lowering prices. One reason is that immigrants and...
...During the late 19th century and early 20th century, immigration to the United States was wrought with challenges. The newly arriving aliens were met with racist native-borns who feared that they would threaten their way of life. This tension between these new groups facilitated the U.S. government’s anti-immigration laws, which also caused political outbursts from those who supported immigrants.
Despite gaining the Chinese exclusion act during the 19th century, nativists were not satisfied. The national people’s party, or populist’s party, demonstrates this best. The populist’s party was mostly comprised of farmers, who happened to be of Anglo-Saxon decent. Because they viewed immigrants as a threat to their moral values (immigrants remained in urban areas and practiced urban values, which rural Americans did not agree with), they quickly labeled them as “paupers” and “criminals” that would take jobs from native workers, in an attempt to gain more governmental regulation (Doc.C). These nativists also gained support from an unexpected source; African Americans, such as booker T. Washington, who wished to support them in an effort to gain their own equality (Doc. D). These two pressures caused the government to capitulate and pass laws, such as the quota act that would greatly limit immigration until as late as the 1960s. The U.S. government not only placated its people foreign governments such as japan that wished for their...