18 January 2013
Immigration in the 19th century
In the 19th century the U.S was known as the golden door, due to the many opportunities the country had for all the foreign people. They were two types of immigrants: the old immigrants and the new immigrants. The old immigrants were from countries in north and west Europe and immigrated between 1850 and 1880. However during 1880 and 1910 17.7 million immigrants entered the U.S., these were known as the new immigrants. The new immigrants came from south and east Europe. With the arrival of the new immigrants some problems emerged such as the nativism .the native- born Americans were angry about the arrival of the new immigrants. However both, old and new immigrants shared common characteristics. Some characteristics were a “better life, to have a decent job, and s to freely practice their religion.” (Out of many […] 562) Stated the author John Faragher.
Having a better life was a priority to any immigrant entering to the United States. any immigrant entered the united states to start a new life. However some immigrants missed they loved ones and it wasn’t possible to adapt, due to this reason immigration chains started to emerge. For example if the Italian father leave his native country all the family followed him and then start a new life together, making it easier to all the family to have a better life with their loved ones. Immigration chain was one of the reasons there was many immigrants of the same ethnic group. Like any other person in the world the immigrants gather with their own ethnic group. Gathering with their ethnic groups gave them confidence so there was ethnic communities such as china town. The ethnic communities were like a mini part of their culture, where they lived like in his native country. All this factors made it easier for an immigrant to have a better life. Another reason for a person to immigrate to the United States was to have...
In 19th and 20th century, British and French were the two of the most influential country in the world. At that time, Great Britain was the first colonial country in the world. They controlled the 1/3 lands of the world. France also was an industrialized nation with a large empire. They colonized lots of country and became the second colonial country. These two countries were all interested in Africa where have lots of oil, gold, diamond and plenty of good resources for them to exploit. They were all colonized in African but used different way to control and manage their colonies. Britain used “Indirect Rule” to control their colonies, and France used “Direct Rule” to control their colonies.
Great Britain was a huge empire. Their industry technology was the best in the world. They had strong navy and they used to conquer about 1/3 of the world. During nineteen century, Britain was interested on the recourse where in the Africa. British occupied Egypt at first, and then they also took over the Sudan. And more and more country controlled by British. British used a way called “Indirect rule” to colonize their colonies. British government encouraged African farmers to grow cash crops, and they also built railroad system (Goff 48). Their acts made African’s economy developed faster and faster. Because of the absence of a British immigrant, African gained more opportunities to get jobs. African demanded that they wanted to get...
...19thcentury: period of growing consciousness, restlessness which promulgated the formation of two major movements
Propaganda Movement (failed)
Revolutionary Movement (replaces the PM)
Marcelo H. Del Pilar
*They worked for the Philippines’ assimilation as a Spanish province and equal treatment of the Filipinos as for the Spaniards
*Writings in this period cannot be called literature except for the novels and poems of Rizal.
*The writings were a big part in developing sense of nationhood among the Filipinos
*Propaganda literature was centered on the writings of Rizal
*He and Paterno changed the concept of “Filipino” to Spanish mestizos, Chinese mestizos, and Hispanized Indios
- Poems by Paterno in the 1880a
- Beginning of national consciousness
- Ninay – first novel (enlisted in nationality)
- Bulk of Filipino writings
- Spanish-Tagalog newspaper which publication signaled the open campaign for reforms
- Developed during the campaign for reforms in the last quarter of the 19thcentury
- Provided impetus by PM
- 1889 was the official mouthpiece of the Reform Movement
- Essays in this paper became P-S literature’s significant contribution to Philippine literature
Su Excelencia, Senor Don Vicente Barrantes (Rizal) – humor...
...the United States has attracted immigrants from all over the world and consists of a variety of different cultures. Immigration has had an enormous impact on American society and economy and shaped the country remarkably.
American was dominated by the image of the melting pot that “melts up” all race differences and cultures to become on American culture. The ideas of multiculturalism started at the end of the nineteenth century and turned into the concept of cultural pluralism that defined the nation as a mixture of diverse ethnicities with different cultural backgrounds, all co-existing and contributing to the new nation.
Over the past centuries, there have been debates on how to define the “real” American and the “real” American identity. A lot of these struggles also led to Civil War (1861-1865). After war, congress passed the 14th Amendment to answer the question of whether former slaves could be citizens of the United States. The Amendment says that all persons born and naturalized in the United States are citizens of the United States. But debates on who is a “real” American, who could stay in the country and who should get kicked out continued.
One group of immigrants that had a huge influence on the prospering economy and the growing expansion of nineteenth century America, especially in the west, were the Chinese.
Significant Chinese immigration began with the discovery of gold in...
...In the 19thCentury, European society underwent great changes due to industrialization. Manufacturing readily developed and began to take over the traditional economic activities of European countries, agriculture. This caused many European communities economic production to shift from homes and small shops, this in turn led to the creation of many new factories. Due to this major transformation from "agricultural societies" to modern "industrial societies" much of the European populace relocated from small towns or wilds to larger areas of industry. This was extremely influential in the creation and expansion of major cities.
With the help of industrialization, large cities, and massive populations in more dense areas, the disparity between the working class and aristocracy had an ideal setting. John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx were two philosophers who analyzed industrialization and the detrimental conditions which were influenced by it. Each had their own perspective, very distinctive perspective, on the best way to improve society. Although Mill and Marx differed on many issues, they were rather clear on their industrialized society's main failing; the fact that the lower class, "proletarians," was being constantly exploited by the upper class, "bourgeoisie."
From Britain, philosopher and economist John Stuart Mill produced many articulate and well-structured critiques throughout the 19thcentury. It would be...
...Progress in late 19thcentury Latin America
“To develop to a higher, better, or more advanced stage” is how progress is defined in the Merriam-Webster dictionary. During the late 19thcentury, Latin America, in particular, was striving to do just what this definition states. From copying other countries ideas to living more luxurious lives, the majority of Latin America was ready to progress and thrive as a whole. However, in opposition, a number of people resisted progress because they were content with the lives they lived and did not see a reason for change. Gabriela, Clove and Cinnamon by Jorge Amado is a prime example of progress in the 19thcentury. While reading the novel, the reader can see the resistance, as well as the push for progress, and understand how different sectors within a town in Latin America reacted to change. This was an exciting time in Latin America, due to a flourishing economy, technological advances, roads being built, newspapers published, and much more. However, many people did not know how to change as quickly as society was changing. A good example of this is gender determination, which is defined as, “in the realm of work and employment, the way in which jobs and professions are determined based on the sex of those involved”. Men were in charge and as a wife, a woman obeyed. Men lived based off of a strong sense of masculine pride, power and...
...In her essay Woman in the Nineteenth Century, Margaret Fuller discusses the state of marriage in America during the 1800s. She is a victim of her own knowledge, and is literally considered ugly because of her wisdom. She feels that if certain stereotypes can be broken down, women can have the respect of men intellectually, physically, and emotionally. She explains why some of the inequalities exist in marriages around her. Fuller feels that once women are accepted as equals, men and women will be able achieve a true love not yet know to the people of the world. Fuller personifies what is wrong with the thoughts of people in nineteenth century society. She is a well-educated, attractive woman and yet, in America she is considered unmarriageable because of the unintended intimidation her knowledge brings forth. She can't understand why men would not want to find a woman with whom they can carry on an intelligent, meaningful conversation and still be physically attracted to. She knows that once this inferiority complex is gotten past, women will start to excel in all different fields. My interpretation is that Fuller feels if women are educated and skilled then they will be able to take care of themselves until the right man comes along. Their discretion will be tenfold, and they will be able to wait for the proverbial "Mr. Right". Fuller gives three wonderful examples of how equality gets broken down in a marriage. The first is the...
...Romanticism and Rationalism Romanticism began in the mid-18th century and reached its height in the 19thcentury. The Romantic literature of the nineteenth century holds in its topics the ideals of the time period, concentrating on emotion, nature, and the expression of "nothing." The Romantic era was one that focused on the commonality of humankind and, while using emotion and nature; the poets and their works shed light on people's universal natures. Romanticism as a movement declined in the late 19thcentury and early 20th century with the growing dominance of Realism in the literature and the rapid advancement of science and technology. However, Romanticism was very impressionative on most individuals during its time. Rationalism or Realism was erected during the mid 19thcentury. Realism are ideas that are brought up in philosophical thinking. The realistic movement of the late 19thcentury saw authors accurately depict life and it's problems. Realists attempted to give a comprehensive picture of modern life by presenting the entire picture. They did not try to give one view of life but instead attempted to show the different classes, manners, and stratification of life. The Rationalist recognizes that they must master their own destiny, using their unique powers of reason and the scientific method to solve problems....
...Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries
During the 19th and 20th century, Europe witnessed its so-called demographic transition, with a fall in birth rates and an even greater fall in mortality rates, which led to a rapid increase in the population. The demographic transition was essentially a result of a decrease in chronic infectious diseases like tuberculosis, syphilis, diphtheria, measles, dysentery, and typhoid fever.
The wage dispersion evidence suggests that the middle of the 19thcentury is an appropriate date for the start of modern convergence in the Atlantic economy. One might view this convergence as one of transition toward globally-integrated Atlantic factor markets. The convergence in wages from about 1854 to the end of the 19thcentury was the most extensive that the Atlantic economy has seen since 1830, including the better-known convergence of the post-World War II era, although the "speed" per decade wasn't as fast as during the spectacular post-World War II epoch (Crafts and Toniolo, 1996). Most of the convergence was complete by the turn of the century.
Convergence wasn't limited to real wages and living standards of the working poor: GDP per capita converged as well (O'Rourke and Williamson, 1998, ch. 2). However, real wage convergence was much faster than convergence of GDP per capita, and the globalization...