Immigration is the act of moving to reside in another country permanently. People who immigrate is called immigrant or can be considered as permanent resident. In the old days, people immigrate to another country due to many factors such as changing climate, inadequate supply of food and wars. The pace of migration had accelerated since the 18th century due to the involuntary slave trade and then followed by industrialization in the 19th century. But nowadays, there are varies of reason that motivate immigration. In this essay, I will write about the factors that motivate migration and challenges immigrants face in the new country.
There are both pull and push factors that motivate migration. According to Lewis (1982),” environmental, economic, political and social problems can be categorized as push factors in migration.” Lack of employment opportunities is one of the main problems in immigration, such as in Indonesia. Indonesia ranks the 4 largest population in the world. With so many competitors to emulate with, it’s difficult to find job. The pays is not good and some are unable to support their family and is forced to be a labor in foreign countries. So, there are many people immigrate to another country hoped to get a job in there and start their new life. In Indonesia, safety is what people fear of. Criminality occurs everywhere, especially in big cities such as Jakarta and Surabaya. In 2011, there were reported 54,799 violent crimes, 64 murders, 68 rapes, 1,936 aggravated assaults, 6,807 burglaries, 7,702 thefts and 5,352 vehicle thefts. High criminality caused Indonesia to be an unsafe place to stay in.
Pull factors are the attractive part of the host country which attracts the immigrants to come, such as opportunities for better employment, higher wages, facilities, better working condition and amenities. According to C.F.Piore (1979),” Unification and migration system is also able to attract migrants, especially if there are...
...Was the post-war rise in immigration solely due to economic factors? Consider at least two European countries and explain your answer.
An immigrant or a non- citizen legal resident could be defined as an individual who decides to move to a country and lives there longer than a period of usually three to six months.
One of the most heavily discussed subjects at a worldwide scale in post-war Europe was immigration, its effects and the rise of this event which was an essential factor when it came to economic growth, deeply influenced by social, political and not the least, economic factors.
Almost 100 million people in the world live in another country, a country other than their own and when it comes to Europe, immigrant percentages were found to be highest in countries such as Switzerland, Austria, Belgium and Germany ( more than eight percent in 1998).
There were two waves of immigration: between 1950 and 1975 ( decolonisation, return migrants and labour migration) and from 1975 to the present day ( a new type of migration, family re-gathering or illegal).
According to Robert Cohen’s well-known written work ‘Contested Domains: Debates in International Labour Studies’, during the post-war period, the majority of the Western countries were encouraging the whole immigration process due to the lack in labour force.
In general, except refugee immigration, the events that took place were due mainly...
...Immigration is the movement of people from other countries that come into another country of especially which they are not a native in order to settle there. Immigration is made for diverse of reasons. The most important of these are escape from poverty, economic, social, political reasons, natural sisaster, unimployment and live in clover. Other causes are retirement migration from rich countries to lower-cost countries with better climate is a new style of international immigration. For example British citizens would rather to immigrate to Spain or İtaly or retired Canadian citizens to the US. While for some migrants education is the primary reason, some migrants has personal reasons, relationship between family or a partner or marriage. As can be seen there are many reasons to migrate and in more detailed examined we can see more reasons.
Over the past quarter century the number of international migrants has doubled to more than 200m this trend is set to increase. (See Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron and Meera Balarajan in book, “Exceptional People”) If rich countries were to admit enough migrants from poor countries to expand their own labour forces by a mere 3%, the world would be richer, according to one estimate, by $356 billion a year. (2) For instance if implemented within a well thought out policy, migration can be the most effective tool yet devised for reducing global poverty.
There are pros and cons of migration for...
...Running head: Immigration
Which Way Home by Rebecca Cammisa, is a documentary that follows a group of children, between the ages 9 and 17. The children in the film are from Central America and are attempting to cross the Mexican border into America. The film demonstrates the struggling lives
that these children have in their native country, which is why they decided to migrate. On the
journey to America, they find out all the other dangers and different struggles they have to face,
questioning their decision of migrating. The documentary talks about the increased amounts of
children migrating alone to the United States. Under the program, Unaccompanied Child Immigrants, border patrol apprehends about 100,000 children trying to enter the US each year and
many of those children, sadly, are found dead. Children found either around or on the US-Mexican border, are either taken by American or Mexican patrol officers. Those apprehended are then
sent to either an American shelter or a Mexican shelter to await deportation.
The documentary focuses on two particular children, Kevin a 14 year old and Fito a 13
year old. Both are migrating from Honduras which is were the majority of unaccompanied children come from. These children have to travel 1, 450 miles, alone, just to get to the GuatemalanMexican border. Once in Mexico, these children have to travel for months, even a year to...
...Lebanon: A Country of Emigration and Immigration
Dr Paul Tabar
Paul Tabar is the director of the Institute for Migration Studies and Associate Professor of
Sociology/Anthropology at the Lebanese American University. He is also Associate Researcher at the
Centre for Cultural Research, University of Western Sydney. He is a co-author of Being Lebanese in
Australia: Identity, Racism and the Ethnic Field (Institute for Migration Studies, LAU Press, Beirut, 2010).
E-mail address: [email protected]
Migration Patterns: Lebanon
The first section of this paper aims to give a concise account of the patterns, history, and
characteristics of Lebanese Migration from 1870 to the present day.
Before describing the patterns of migration to and from Lebanon, it is critical to lay out the
geographical boundaries of the area which constitutes this paper’s focus. Mount Lebanon
refers to a primary source of early emigration that existed between 1870 and 1920. Present
day Lebanon, which was founded in 1920 and became independent in 1943, is dealt with
later in the paper.
Lebanese emigration started in Mount Lebanon, which included the major coastal cities of
Jounieh and Byblos – but not Beirut. To the north, Mount Lebanon included neither Tripoli
nor Akkar. The Beqaa Valley and South Lebanon (including Sidon and Tyre) were also
excluded. Mount Lebanon became an autonomous administrative unit within the Ottoman
Empire in 1860, and was governed by a Christian...
...world more submitted to global crisis since their economies are closely interlinked than a crisis in one country would lead to the same effect on economies of other countries that are its economic partners. In this respect, migration seems to be probably the most effective by such a striking contrast that leads to high level of emigration from developing countries and respectively high level of immigration in developed countries. This means that people from developing and poor countries prefer to move to developed and rich countries.
Moreover, this process keeps growing despite the fact that globalization produced a positive influence on international trade flows that have increased significantly since the beginning of the process of globalization. Presumably, it should really improve the situation in developing countries and decrease the level of emigration. Nonetheless, in actuality the trend, which will be discussed in details a bit later, remains practically unchangeable even though many developed countries attempt to create certain artificial barriers to both legal and illegal immigration. In such a way it is necessary to remember that globalization is a dubious process that has both positive and negative sides and migration is highly dependent on this process to the extent that the basic migration flows are defined by the current situation in the global economy and possibilities of population movement between different countries.
...the questions of migration issue among the Austrian immigration to Canada. Canada can be identified simply as a country of vast geographical size, the second largest country in the world, but with a small population of some 25 million people, and is in many ways several countries accidentally linked by the historical development, peopled by different and distinct immigrant cultures, symbolised by having two official languages.(Brake, 1985, p.144) Immigration is a big complex issue that depends on individual choice but if there should be a generalisation it would be indicate as a struggle to create a new life with hopes by sweeping the past mostly. To an answer to why is it a "complex" issue, it can be said that the general dissatisfaction, which means, people migrating to other countries by leaving many things behind mostly nag about the conditions of the new country in terms of racism, ethnic prejudice also native residents complain about newcomers too. So if nothing has changed in terms of satisfaction why are these people still continuing to migrate? To make this question clearer, some points have to be highlighted as firstly brief information about how Austrians came to Canada then why Canada is attractive to Austrian residents, sociologic profile of Austrian immigrants, what are the contributions of immigrants for the migrated country and also the issue of native's feedback to immigrants. Even tough Austrian immigration seems...
...Canada. The number of total immigrants must be brought down to around 130,000 – 150,000 a year. That way we give a chance for some skilled workers, refugees and others to enter Canada while saving jobs for Canadians. Of those 130,000 - 150,000 we will make sure that at least 80% (104,000 – 120,000) of these immigrants should skilled and educated workers that can benefit the Canadian economy and society. Others should be people who are desperately in need of a Canadian Citizenship or Permanent Residence cards. Therefore making sure people in the country are served in the highest quality while still giving foreigners a chance to experience life in Canada.
Fact #1 Source:
"Be Humane With Genuine Refugees, But Do Not Put Up With Fraud." - Immigration Watch Canada. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 June 2012. .
Fact #2 (Write down another fact that you found that helps you to argue your specific political issue and helps to support your Party’s position on the political spectrum)
90,000 students come to study in Canada every year on a temporary residence visa or a study permit. These students must be able to prove that they can pay for their tuition, have a clean criminal record, be in good health, and leave the country once they are finished.
Comment on the above fact (make reference to your Party’s goals/political spectrum beliefs):
Everybody has a right to learn whether or not it is in Canada or not. As left winger we want to provide an equal chance for everyone...
...IMMIGRATION RESTRICTION ACT- 1901
The Immigration Restriction Act (1901) can be argued was a policy enacted to reflect the prejudices in Australian society at the time. The Immigration Restriction Act consisted of the Australian Parliament limiting immigration to Australia, which came to be known as The White Australia Policy. The White Australia Policy consists of various historical laws that favour immigration to Australia from Britain but strongly discourage non-whites or people who are not of British descent.
At the turn of the Century Australia was still a relatively new country. It’s population was 4 million, somewhat small, compared to other world populations. At the time the general public consensus was that Australia should be a white country and allowing indiscriminate immigration could threaten its identity. The White Australia Policy had overwhelming support from Australia’s white population, so it could be argued that its introduction was merely a reflection of the public’s ideals at the time. This is reflected by historian Myra Willard:
"…no motive power, operated more universally on this continent, or in the beautiful island of Tasmania… than the desire that we should be one people, and remain one people, without the admixture of other races."
Myra Willard, 'History of the White Australia Policy to 1920'. Melbourne University Press, 1923. p 119
It is clear that white...