AP World History
1 September 2012
Ibn Battuta and the Five Pillars
In Ross E. Dunn’s novel, The Adventures of Ibn Battuta, Ibn, a 14th century Muslim traveler, is influenced by The Five Pillars of Islam in different ways (Dunn 1). The Five Pillars of Islam are Faith (shahada), Prayer (salat), Charity (zakat), Fast, and Pilgrimage (hajj). Shahada is the declaration of faith, i.e. the professing that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is God's messenger. Salat is the Islamic prayer. It consists of five daily prayers that are recited while facing the Ka'bah in Mecca. Zakat or alms-giving is the practice of charitable giving by Muslims based on accumulated wealth, and is obligatory for all who are able to do so. Fasting is a mandatory act during the month of Ramadan unless you are sick, pregnant, young child, or on a difficult journey. Muslims must abstain from food and drink from dawn to dusk during this month. The hajj is a pilgrimage that occurs during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah to the holy city of Mecca. Every able-bodied Muslim is obliged to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime. He sees that the pillars are the most important cultural value.
First, Ibn Battuta is influenced by Faith because he appears to have been one of those rare individuals who live their faith, mainly by relegating their own personal needs to a secondary level of importance while the needs of their faith, remain primary in significance. Ibn Battuta needed to travel his path as a solitary traveler, one who remained convinced that his faith would see him through whatever adventures he encountered in his journey of discovery and exploration. Faith was the reason for his travels.
Ibn is also influenced by prayer because in some ways it saved him. In Calicut, a storm came up that evening. Ibn was suppose to be on one of the boats caught in the storm if he wasn’t at prayer in an offshore mosque. The boat he was...
...IbnBattutaIbnBattuta was a Muslim Moroccan explorer, known for his extensive travels. Over a period of thirty years, he visited most of the known Islamic world as well as many non-Muslim lands; his journeys included trips to North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Africa, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe in the West, and to the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China in the East. He is considered one of the greatest travellers of all time. He journeyed more than 75,000 miles (121,000 km).
His name was Abu Abdal-Lāh Muhammad ibn Abdal-Lah l-Lawati attangi ibn Battutah. He was born in February 25, 1304 and died in 1369 at the age of 65. As a young man he had studied at a Sunni Maliki madh'hab, (Islamic jurisprudence school), the dominant form of education in North Africa at that time. In June 1325, at the age of twenty-one, IbnBattuta set off from his hometown on a hajj to Mecca, a journey that would take sixteen months. He would not see Morocco again for twenty-four years.
He said: “ I set out alone, finding no companion to cheer the way with friendly intercourse, and no party of travellers with whom to associate myself. Swayed by an overmastering impulse within me, and a...
...The Travels of IbnBattutaIbnBattuta started on his travels when he was 20 years old in 1325. His main reason to travel was to go on a Hajj, or a Pilgrimage to Mecca, as all good Muslims want to do. But his traveling went on for about 29 years and he covered about 75,000 miles visiting the equivalent of 44 modern countries which were then mostly under the governments of Muslim leaders of the World of Islam, or "Dar al-Islam".
He met many dangers and had many adventures along the way. He was attacked by bandits, almost drowned in a sinking ship, was almost beheaded by a tyrant ruler, and had a few marriages and lovers and fathered several children on his travels. Near the end of Ibn Battuta's own life, the Sultan of Morocco insisted that IbnBattuta dictate the story of his travels to a scholar and today we can read translations of that story called "Rihla - My Travels". Much of it is fascinating, but some of it seems to be made up and even is inaccurate about places we know about. However, it is a valuable and interesting record of places which add to our understanding of the period.
This is a map of the Old World about 1300. IbnBattuta and fellow Muslim traders had already ventured out into China, Indonesia and further, and had established small Muslim communities in more regions of the world. Ibn...
...It is incredible to think that flanker in the 1300 s one person could have traveled from Morocco across North and East Africa, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, the Crimea, India, Ceylon, Indonesia and China. I get weary just handwriting roughly it! But this is what IbnBattuta did. When you think of how hard (and dangerous!) it was to tour flanker in those days, it is just amazing. What makes this Deuteronomy in particular fascinating is the appearance it provides into Muslim society. Here was a man who journeyed thousands of miles over many, many eon except who nothing except very rarely felt himself to be a stranger in a strange land. In unspecified places Islam was in the majority and in unspecified places it was the minority except IbnBattuta was always able to find educated Moslems identical to himself who could provide a ensconce to live, food to eat, clothing to handwear and cash to spend. Very importantly also, they could provide mental uphold to a person very far from home. This Deuteronomy is best when it settles down in one ensconce for an extended period, such as when IbnBattuta journeyed to Medina and Mecca. This is the most momentous journey a Moslem takes during an whole lifetime and it is expected, health and finances permitting, that a believer will make the journey at least once in a lifetime. Medina is where the tomb of The Prophet is and Mecca was His birthplace. Mister Dunn...
“The Adventures of IbnBattuta: A Muslim Traveler of the Fourteenth Century”
Translation: Ross E. Dunn
Ibn Batutta was a self-proclaimed scholar of the fourteenth century who traveled extensively throughout sub-Saharan Africa under the banner of Islam, and wrote of his travels in an autobiographical book entitled ‘The Travels of IbnBattuta’. The financing for his ventures was derived from Muslim rulers inhabiting the cities he visited. His text regarding the cities and their occupants provide great insight into the cultural diversity and economic conditions of medieval Africa, Middle East and Asia. IbnBattuta also exposes intricate details of daily life regarding food, clothing and rituals. His journals relay a precarious existence where food is not always palatable; clothing is optional and indigenous rituals conflict with his own beliefs. Religious studies students may question the need for this intricate detail; however, IbnBattuta was gathering the crucial knowledge to help other Muslims make the journey. His observances also allowed community leaders to learn of the actions of other community leaders.
Among his many observations IbnBattuta describes the terrain where he travels and the manner in which each community receives him. On many occasions, particularly when...
...Ibn Battuta’s remarks of his travels say a great deal about his own culture and norms. Almost every place he travels to he brings up women and how they are treated, as well as what their status is in that society. He is also very amused with the décor of the buildings in terms of gold and silver decorations. It seems as though he does not come from a wealthy society or his family is not on the wealthy status level. Battuta also seems to bring up the cleanliness of each area he travels to.
Ibn Battuta’s travels to Africa showed a lot about how he was brought up and also about his culture. He describes the occupants of the town of Zayla as “negro people” and when he arrives in the town of Kulwa he describes the Zanj people as “jet black in colour.” It seems as though his birthplace was not of many different races or cultures and you can see that in the different places he visits through his fascination with the people. It is also very clear that Battuta dislikes Zayla greatly because it “is the dirtiest, most abominable, and most stinking town in the world.” His perception of Africa through his explanations seems to be the most negative of all the places he visits. He dislikes the area so bad that he chooses to spend the night at sea, regardless of how rough the sea was. The reason for the stench was due to the blood from the slaughtered camels and the amount of fish the area has. Battuta seems to...
Muhammad ibnBattuta (1304-ca. 1368) was a Moorish traveler whose extensive voyages as far as Sumatra and China, southern Russia, the Maldives, the East African coast, and Timbuktu made him one of the greatest medieval travelers.
Muhammad ibnBattuta was born in Tangier. His family was of Berber origin and had a tradition of service as judges. After receiving an education in Islamic law,IbnBattuta set out in 1325, at the age of 21, to perform the obligatory pilgrimage to Mecca and to continue his studies in the East. He reached Mecca in 1326 by way of Egypt and Syria. This journey aroused in him the passion to see the world. From Mecca he made a trip to Iraq and western Persia as far as Tabriz and in 1327 returned via Baghdad to Mecca, where he spent the next 3 years.
IbnBattuta then traveled by ship along the Red Sea shores to Yemen and from Aden to Mogadishu and the East African trading ports. He returned by way of Oman and the Persian Gulf to Mecca in 1332. Next he passed through Egypt and Syria and by ship reached Anatolia, where he visited local Turkish rulers and religious brotherhoods. He crossed the Black Sea to the Crimea in the territories of the Golden Horde and visited its khan in the Caucasus. He then journeyed to Sarai, the capital of the Golden Horde east of the lower Volga, and then through Khwarizm,...
...I. Race and Gender
A. Ibn Battuta’s Mali (1352)
B. Michel Montaigne’s Of Cannibals (1575)
C. Sor Juana Inez de la Cruz’s The Poet’s Answer to the Most Illustrious Sor Filotea De La Cruz (1691)
D. Lady Mary Montague’s The Turkish Embassy Letters
E. Mary Wollstonecraft’s Chapter 13 from A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
A. The readings listed above are all pertinent to either race or gender. What sets these apart, though, is the overall tone of the authors. All of these readings are observations. Judgment is passed at times, but that is primarily due to the differences between the author’s own life and the way of life that he or she is describing. Race and gender is the first category of readings because it cannot be changed or altered, it simply is what it is.
Ibn Battuta’s Mali best encompasses this category because of the genuine interest he had in his observations. He describes things about the people of Mali that are praiseworthy as well as things that he dislikes about their way of life, giving the entire work brilliant objectivity. Something that he praises about the culture is “the small number of acts of injustice that take place there [in Mali], for of all people, the Negroes abhor it [injustice] the most.” He also appreciates the religious customs of the culture and identifies with the importance of religion, but admires the dedication the people of Mali have to their God. Something that...
Abd al-Rahman Ibn Khaldun was born in (1332 AD) in Tunis. He was regarded to be the father of sociology and one of the strongest personalities during the Muslim cultural decline in the Arab world. In this paper I will be demonstrating Ibn Khaldun’s presence, thoughts, and work. Despite the fact that he lived in the 14th and 15th centuries, his thoughts and contributions to humanity are still appropriate for discussion in the 20th century and have become a source of scientific and political judgments. His area of concentration focused more or less on three main disciplines sociology, history and philosophy. Starting with sociology, he looked at two groups of people, nomads and townspeople, with peasants in between then he characterized each group with a certain sociological structure. In terms of history, Ibn Khaldun wanted to examine analyse history by dividing it into two parts historical manifest and historical gist. Finally, in regard to philosophy, Ibn Khaldun attempted to re-examine mysticism and theology in developing a model of the Sufism.
Ibn Khaldun contribution to the discipline of sociology, he first looked at nomads’ characteristics and categorized them as being rough, savage and uncultured and their presence will always be destructive to civilization; however they have other unique characteristics that perhaps cannot be found with other groups that he identified...