Hamdard institute of education and social sciences
EMERGING ISSUES IN EDUCation
Human Rights ---- Children rights
"Maybe we're all born knowing we have rights - we just need to be reminded” --- Romanian HRE trainer
Human Rights can be defined as those basic standards without which people cannot live in dignity as human beings. Human rights are the foundation of freedom, justice and peace. Their respect allows the individual and the community to fully develop. They are "rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled". Human rights are certain moral guarantees that people in all countries and cultures allegedly have simply because they are people. Calling these guarantees “rights” suggests that they attach to particular individuals who can invoke them, that they are of high priority, and that compliance with them is mandatory rather than discretionary.
You are a human being. You have rights inherent in that reality. You have dignity and worth that exist prior to law. --- Lyn Beth Neylon
Human rights are frequently held to be universal in the sense that all people have and should enjoy them, and to be independent in the sense that they exist and are available as standards of justification and criticism whether or not they are recognized and implemented by the legal system or officials of a country.
An alternative explanation was provided by the philosopher Kant. He said that human beings have an intrinsic value absent in inanimate objects. To violate a human right would therefore be a failure to recognize the worth of human life.
A right is not what someone gives you; it's what no one can take from you. --- Ramsey Clark
Human rights are basic freedoms and welfare of all world citizens, with which governments have no rights to interfere. Every person has to live his or her life in accordance with the Universal Charter, irrespective of the creed, religion, territory and race. The development of human rights has its roots in the struggle for freedom and equality everywhere in the world. The basis of human rights - such as respect for human life and human dignity - can be found in most religions and philosophies.
CHARACTERISTICS OF HUMAN RIGHTS
• Human rights do not have to be bought, earned or inherited, they belong to people simply because they are human - human rights are 'inherent' to each individual. • Human rights are the same for all human beings regardless of race, sex, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin. We are all born free and equal in dignity and rights - human rights are 'universal'. • Human rights cannot be taken away; no one has the right to deprive another person of them for any reason. People still have human rights even when the laws of their countries do not recognize them, or when they violate them - for example, when slavery is practiced, slaves still have rights even though these rights are being violate - human rights are 'inalienable'. • People live in dignity, all human rights are entitled to freedom, security and decent standards of living concurrently - human rights are 'indivisible'.
CLASSIFICATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
Rights can be put into three categories:
1. Civil and political rights (also called 'first generation' rights). These are 'liberty-orientated' and include the rights to: life, liberty and security of the individual; freedom from torture and slavery; political participation; freedom of opinion, expression, thought, conscience and religion; freedom of association and assembly.
2. Economic and social rights (also called second generation rights). These are 'security-orientated' rights, for example the rights to: work; education; a reasonable standard of living; food; shelter and health care.
3. Environmental, cultural and developmental rights (also called third generation rights)....
...Are humanrights innate and universal?
Post WWII on the 10 December 1948, the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR) was espoused by the General Assembly of the United Nations in order to agree on the notion that such atrocities that occurred throughout the Great War and the Second World War would not ever be reciprocated. The document that was drawn up in less than two years by the UN and Western states, and although ambitious it would guarantee a premise for life and living for every individual all over the world. The UDHR are founded on nobility, equality and reverence, and are said to be aimed at all cultures and religions within the West and East of the globe. However there is great discrepancy regarding the justification and practicality of humanrights all over the world due to political, economic and cultural differences and limitations. Universal means that ‘something’ affects, applies or is completed by everyone all over the world – there is no distinctive bias shown and equal policies are applied. Innate, in relation to humanrights, means that people are given natural rights purely based on the fact that he/she is human and alive. Therefore, are humanrights universal and innate or is the Universal Declaration of Human...
The Charter of the United Nations requires that all member states “promote and encourage respect for humanrights and for fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion”. In order to provide a common understanding of these rights, the Universal Declaration of HumanRights was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations on December 10, 1948. In simple language, it describes the rights shared by all human beings, and sets “a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations”.
In the years since, the principles of the Universal Declaration have been elaborated and given greater legal force through the negotiation of a series of international treaties, notably the:
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
Convention Against Torture
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
Convention on the Rights of the Child
However, there remained a number of disagreements between countries, notably about the relative importance of different types of rights.
In 1993, the nations of the world came together in Vienna to reaffirm their...
...slavery, sickness and other arbitrary executions. To prevent such atrocities in the future, there are legal responses and non-legal responses to deal with the contemporary humanrights issues which is genocide.
First of all, legal responses refer to the UN humanright treaties and Genocide Convention that were adopted in 1948 and approved the Universal Declaration of HumanRight (UDHR) by the United Nation.
The Genocide Convention (1948) outlaws genocide, crime against humanity and crime under international law . All participating countries that ratified the convention will be prevented and punished the genocide in the war or a peace of time.
The Declarations defines the civil and political rights ( including the right to life, the right of liberty, and a fair trial) as well as the economic social and cultural rights( including the right to social security and participating in cultural right in one’s community).
In this case, Cambodia was a party that ratified the Genocide Convention on 14.10.1950. It was enforceable where the Senior Leader of Khmer Rouge between1975 -1979 under the definition of Convention. In contradiction, it was enforceable but it could not desist the massacre that happened in the 1975-1979.
Next, Cambodia was ratified the UDHR and International Convention on Civil and...
...Humanrights education and the United Nations
The United Nations General Assembly has proclaimed it as central to the achievement of the rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR):
“ Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMANRIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms... ”
—Preamble to the Universal Declaration of HumanRights, 1948
Article 26.2 of the UDHR states the role of educators in achieving the social order called for by the declaration:
“ Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for humanrights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. ”
—Article 26.2 of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights
Article 29 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child requires states to ensure that children are enabled to...
The Cyrus Cylinder (539 B.C.)
The decrees Cyrus made on humanrights were inscribed in the Akkadian language on a baked-clay cylinder.
Cyrus the Great, the first king of Persia, freed the slaves of Babylon, 539 B.C.
In 539 B.C., the armies of Cyrus the Great, the first king of ancient Persia, conquered the city of Babylon. But it was his next actions that marked a major advance for Man. He freed the slaves, declared that all people had the right to choose their own religion, and established racial equality. These and other decrees were recorded on a baked-clay cylinder in the Akkadian language with cuneiform script.
Known today as the Cyrus Cylinder, this ancient record has now been recognized as the world’s first charter of humanrights. It is translated into all six official languages of the United Nations and its provisions parallel the first four Articles of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights.
The Spread of HumanRights
From Babylon, the idea of humanrights spread quickly to India, Greece and eventually Rome. There the concept of “natural law” arose, in observation of the fact that people tended to follow certain unwritten laws in the course of life, and Roman law was based on rational ideas derived from the nature of things.
Documents asserting individual...
HumanRights Situation in PakistanHumanrights are the foundation of our society. They pave way for protection which takes us to homes. From home comes family. From family comes education. From education we learn to think rationally because of which we form a government for equal opportunity and harmony. But, the society we are in now lacks the very foundation that is supposed to guide us. There are three areas ofHumanRights that are considered generally very perfect in Pakistan, although they have the poorest record in our country; Right to profess ones religion, Freedom of Speech and Expression and Woman Rights. In this essay certain verses from the Holy Quran and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad will be pointed out as the national religion of Pakistan is Islam, which is the epitome of HumanRights as stated by Dr Riffat, founder of “The International Network for the Right of the Female Victims in Pakistan”.
Firstly this essay will discuss the 20th article from the PakistanHumanRights document; the freedom to profess ones religion. The minority; people of other religion (apart from Muslims) are usually blessed by our society and government by unfair treatments which includes burning of their houses on rumors...
Humanrights are the rights possessed by all persons as human beings.We as a human being deserve humanrights. Humanrights include economic, social and cultural rights as well as civil and political freedom. Universal humanrights are assured by making different laws, policies and making efforts on national and international level .but because of unlimited wants and growing international, national and regional inequalities, there is a need to realize that humanrights are very important for the human development. Human development is indicated by the facilities provided to the people by the authorities such as education, health, freedom etc. These all are humanrights. So, we can say humanrights and human development are mutually essential. Withoutgiving humanrightshuman development is not possible .right based development is the need of the need of the world.
* Our objective is to throw light on the fact that humanrights and human development is mutually essential.
* We come to know about the impact of humanrights on...
...HumanRights – Child Recruitment
Across the world tens of thousands of boys and girls are denied their basic humanrights, these children are abducted from their homes, schools or on the streets. Child recruitment is defined by the Paris Principles and Guidelines on Children Associated with Armed Forces or Armed Groups as ” the use of any children under the age of 18 who has been recruited by a state or non-state armed group to be used to participate in combat or in other circumstances used as spies, messengers, servants, human shields, suicide bombings or to lay landmines”. Many of the girls that have been abducted for recruitment are subjected to sexual assault and they are all at risk of death. Child recruitment takes place in over 18 different countries and it has become a global issue with many countries beginning to take widespread action. When evaluating the effectiveness of legal and non legal measures in addressing child recruitment both domestically and internationally it becomes clear that international recognition and enforceability is limited whilst in Australia there are many mechanisms to ensure the problem is contained.
Internationally Child Recruitment remains a large problem. Whilst it is recognised as a problem a lack of enforceability means that organisations such as UNICEF ( The United Nations Children Fund) have little or no power in countries that accept the recruitment...