What lessons can be learned from history about how to deal with human rights violations? Your answer should make reference to at least 3 historical case studies. To fully understand what the question is asking we must first define what is meant by ‘Human Rights’ and what constitutes a violation of these rights. Once this essay has defined what a human rights violation is it shall then go on to describe periods in history where there has been a clear breach of a peoples human rights and describe what society has learned from these events. Peter Baehr, An author and professor of Human Rights from the Netherlands defines human rights as “internationally agreed values, standards or rules regulating the conduct of states towards their own citizens and towards non-citizens…Human rights tell states what they may not do, but also what they are supposed to do.”(Baehr, 1999. P1). Human rights as we know them came about at the end of World War two as a consequence of the reign of the National Socialists in Germany who killed more than six million Jews, gypsies, homosexuals and political opponents. It was the greatest scale of fundamental human rights violations in modern times. The acts committed in this period of time helped permanently etch into the minds of the world the true meaning of what ‘genocide’ and ‘crimes against humanity’ meant. (Freeman, M. 2002). The UN then created a universal document to state what human rights where; some of the most important are as follows; “The right to life, liberty and security of person (article 3), The prohibition of slavery (article 4), The prohibition of torture (article 5), The prohibition of arbitrary arrest, detention or exile (article 9), The right to a fair trial (article 10), The right to freedom of movement (article 13), The right to property (article 17), The right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion (article 18), The right to freedom of opinion and expression (article 19), The right to freedom of assembly and association (article 20) and The right to participate in the government of one’s country (article 21)” (United Nations,2008). The declaration also mentions other human rights that are to do with social and economic rights. Following on from the formation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights we can look at instances when these human rights have been seriously violated. After the Second World War, the United States of America, the United Kingdom and its allies were involved in a succession of criminal trials. One of the most famous trials linked to human rights was the Nuremberg trial that involved the sentencing of the military officers of the Third Reich. The doctor’s trial which was part of the Nuremberg trial is probably the most disturbing chapter of Nazi ideology. How could medical healers have turned into murderers? The trial took place in Nuremberg Germany. The majority of defendants were found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity because they had carried out a number of unimaginable acts including horrendous experiments on prisoners clearly without the subjects consent. The experiments started as racial hygiene experiments and later developed into different forms of experiments based on human progression by changing the human being into a superior race. The racial hygiene experiments would combat the disproportionate breeding of ‘inferiors’, the celibacy of the upper classes, and the threat posed by feminists to the reproductive performance of the family. This was the fore runner for the following era of the now famous Nazi eugenics experiments. By 1942 more than 38,000 doctors, 50% of doctors in Germany had joined the Nazi party. On July 14,1933, the Nazi party passed the ‘Sterilisation Law’ which allowed forcible sterilisation of anyone suffering from ‘genetically determined’ illnesses. These illnesses included feeblemindedness, Schizophrenia, manic depression, epilepsy, blindness, deafness and severe alcoholism. This resulted in 350,000...
...The aim of this essay is to discuss the development of humanrights legislation and whether the HumanRights Act has helped to protect the rights of British citizens.
The general aim of this essay is to;
1) To follow the development of humanrights legislation, from the end of World War 2, to the present day.
2) And how the HumanRights Act 1998, has affected the lives of British Citizens, for example recently a law allowing terror suspects to be detained for up to 90 days without charge, but this was dropped as it was deemed to breach the rights of those being detained for such a long period of time.
After World War 2, appalled by the atrocities committed during the war, The United Nations adopted the universal Declaration of Rights in 1948. Although not legally binding, it urged member countries to promote certain rights contained within the declaration. The Universal Declaration was the first ever international, legal attempt to limit the behaviour of countries.
The Universal Declaration of HumanRights contains 30 articles. But the most important of these are articles are considered to be the following;
o The right to life, liberty, property and security of person.
o The right to an education
...the question says, the United States does not follow this document, which means that the United States does not respect; and I can think of other nations and peoples who do not follow the declaration as well, right off the top of my head. If the answer to those questions id yes, then I do believe that every nation, including the United States should have to follow it. However, that does not seem to be the case. So therefore, I do not think that any nation should scrutinize or punish another nation for not following the document if that nation does not as well. Furthermore, I think that if all, or most nations, do not follow the Universal Declaration of HumanRights then it was a pretty big waste of time and energy making it and since not respected it should become null and void, and just another piece of failed history.
First I am going to write about the Declaration in general; it’s history and what it consists of. The declaration was created and adopted in 1948. It arouse from the Second World War where people of the Jewish community were subject to very intense and tragic discrimination. The United Nations General Assembly had created it. The declaration includes thirty articles that are supposed to protect and identify the rights and liberties of each and every human life on this planet. On December 10, 1948 the Universal Declaration had been voted on. Forty eight nations voted in favor of it and...
...To a large extent to which the creation of the United Nations and the fundamental rights expressed in The Universal Declaration of HumanRights, 1948 was driven by the atrocities that occurred during World War Two and a need to protect humanrights in the future. Although the UDHR was such a might establishment it has limited success, but continues to be an organisation that holds hope. HumanRights are the entitlements and freedoms to which all humans are empowered to, such as; the freedom of speech, information, life, belief, association and in law. However Adolf Hitler saw it necessary to remove basic liberties to achieve a nation of what he thought was a ‘master race’. His visionary goals were to abolish of all minority groups as he believed, such as the Jewish people. As ruthless as he was, Hitler did not allow any obstacles to prevent his idealistic development of Germany to become an overpowering nation. This meant that he would use inhumane methods. It was then decided that there was a need to strengthen and safeguard fundamental humanrights so that these atrocities would never happen again, thus the adoption of The Universal Declaration of HumanRights by the United Nations. Specifying that all humans are equal to one another, even though Hitler believed that there were various...
...breaths of a human being. Death can contribute to many strong emotions, such as fear and even happiness, but imagine lying on a deathbed and waiting to die? What happens when a patient has an incurable disease? There are two options available. One alternative is to cope with the disease and deal with the unbearable pain, suffering and eventually death. The other option is euthanasia, where one can be at peace. Euthanasia is defined as, "the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma" (Oxford Dictionary). There are two forms of euthanasia, active and passive euthanasia. Active euthanasia is when a medical professional or a loved one such as a spouse, relative, or family member chooses to deliberately withhold basic essential needs in order to survive (Oxford Dictionary). Hence this type of euthanasia is referred to as 'killing'. On the other hand, passive euthanasia is when a patient willingly declines medical treatments and lets nature take its course. (Oxford Dictionary). Euthanasia is a highly controversial issue, and can be viewed through many world-wide tabloids and newspapers. Over recent years euthanasia has received countless supporters who wish to legalize euthanasia. Countries that have already legalized euthanasia are; the Netherlands, Australia, Belgium and even some states in the United States of America (The Life). Euthanasia must be legalized in Canada because every...
...Terrorism and HumanRights
Total wordcount: 7921
COUNTER-TERRORISM & HUMANRIGHTS
The duty to comply with HumanRights while countering terrorism
Since the end of the Second World War, and the Cold War, terrorism has been one of the main issues of the international community. Not only has terrorism been perceived as a threat to the peace and the security, but also, an aggression of the fundamental rights and to the democracy.
Following the 9/11 attacks, which have shaken the civilized world to its core foundations, the fight against terrorism became even more significant. The Security Council, in 2001, has adopted the Resolution 13731 (which is indicative of the importance of this issue). This resolution constitutes a general framework of the international campaign against terrorism, by defining all the measures that can actually be done to fight against it and by declaring the necessity to fight against terrorism by all “legal” mean. Therefore, the Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee has also been established2. De facto, with a general framework and an institutional framework, nothing could possibly prevent States in fighting terrorism under the aegis of the United Nations. However, if the Resolution claims to fight against terrorism, it does not define it, which is not surprising knowing that before the resolution,...
...HumanRightsEssayHumanrights is a very important part of our World. Everyone wants and needs them. Every country throughout the world has different societies and governments with different rules. They are not always fair and can be very controlling and because of this people are not granted the rights they deserve. Big events in history have made us see and understand what could become when there are not many rights, because without them their would be no peace.
HumanRights are basically rights that all people are entitled to, regardless of religion, sex, race, language, and ethnic or national origin. Humanrights include civil rights too, like life, freedom of expression and social, cultural, economic rights. Amnesty International and Universal Declaration of humanrights are examples of global institutions that fight to protect people from the rights that are denied in their country like freedom, truth, dignity and justice. Many countries though, don’t get a say or a choice about their humanrights as their societies government is very powerful and controlling.
Important events in history have led us to how we understand humanrights today, because each big event...
One of the most undeniable and challenging foreign policy debates of the last several years has concerned the future of democracy and its role in human-rights law. The idea of Western societies encouraging democratization of non-western societies is believed to be cultural imperialism, which abuses the power of states in the developing world. However for the purpose of this paper, I view the support of democratization by Western societies as a positive approach to achieving the core significance of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights that is supposedly recognized by all states.
The Universal Declaration of HumanRights was created on the notion of a common human race. It represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are naturally entitled. Of the fifty-eight countries that were members of the United Nations in 1948, forty-eight countries initially approved the document. Essentially all of the world’s states have approved it since then, which indicates that in any event its principle articles should be used by all states as an instrument in binding international law
in spite of the presence of treaty ratification or state of war. Considering the fact that most countries have agreed to abide by the Declaration of HumanRights, it can...
...Humanrights in the Philippines
Humanrights in the Philippines has been a subject of concern and controversy. According to U.S. Country Profile on the Philippines dated March 2006, the U.S. State Department reported in 2006 that Philippine security forces have been responsible for serious humanrights abuses despite the efforts of civilian authorities to control them. The report found that although the government generally respected humanrights, some security forces elements—particularly the Philippine National Police—practiced extrajudicial killings, vigilantism, disappearances, torture, and arbitrary arrest and detention in their battle against criminals and terrorists. Prison conditions were harsh, and the slow judicial process as well as corrupt police, judges, and prosecutors impaired due process and the rule of law. Besides criminals and terrorists, humanrights activists, atheists and agnostics, left-wing political activists, and Muslims were sometimes the victims of improper police conduct. Violence against women and abuse of children remained serious problems, and some children were pressed into slave labor and prostitution.
On Wednesday December 7, 2006 International Labor Rights Fund's Brian Campbell tried to enter the Philippines to continue investigations of recent human...