Human Rights Education (HRE) according to Shiman 1999 is ‘all learning that develops the knowledge, skills and values of human rights’. If HRE is effective then it can change a person’s values, attitudes and behaviour which could potentially be life changing (University of Minnesota, 2009).Despite the widespread recognition of the importance of education and that education is a basic human right; there are staggering statistics to show that many people go without a basic education. Many children miss out on good quality education or any type of education at all due to political and religious conflict against their right to an education. Throughout this essay challenges to HRE will be critically discussed and examples of the challenges to HRE will be given using case studies. The question of why education is so significant in today’s society is often raised. However many people do not see that education is perhaps one of the most important factors in life. Without education it would be virtually impossible for the world to develop and to eradicate poverty and famine. Through education society can move forward due to people gaining skills and knowledge which give them the ability to devise new ideas to help improve the world. The ability to gain a good job with high pay all comes from a good education and money enables a person to have a better future and live in comfort (Dr. Diamond, 2007). It has been proven that the more educated a person is the more likely they are to live a healthy life style. This is because they are also more likely to utilise health facilities and health information which is available for everyone, this makes a positive impact on their health (Pyke, 2003). This means that education can also lead on to the eradication of diseases such as HIV and AIDS, as a good education equips girls and boys with the knowledge and skills that are necessary to adopt a healthy lifestyle and to stay away from such diseases (UNICEF, 2010). Health is vital in life and without an education a person’s health is likely to suffer and consequently leading to a shorter life span. Many political conflicts end in war, which is very difficult to escape from once invloved. The former president of Liberia, Charles Taylor, launched his takeover of the country by using a trained group of soldiers which consisted predominately of children. These children were engaged as soldiers from a very young age and spent their younger years immersed in a world of violence. Constant engagement in violence can have serious affect on ones values and morals; by witnessing violence constantly it is likely that they will believe that violence is correct. Child soldiers will become guided by violence instead of becoming a part of society that wants to create peace. The basic human right to an education is denied from child soldiers as they are needed to defend their country. During the wars in which they fight many schools are destroyed, teachers flee and the government tend to put all their resources into the war rather than in to services such as education. This makes it very difficult to return to education after they are finished fighting in war (Wessells, 2007). However some child soldiers view their life style as a good thing and believe they are not missing out on education as they are still learning through war. In Sierra Leone many teenagers join the rebel army named the Revolutionary United Front (RUF). They join this group voluntarily in order to gain training, knowledge and skills. Some teenagers say that they learnt to read by studying revolutionary literature distributed by the RUF. In a country like Sierra Leone where there is a lot of war and conflict it is viewed by many that joining groups such as the RUF is the only way of gaining some sort of education and building a future (Wessells, 2007) In countries where children are denied education poverty seems to be paramount and a bleak future is insight as children grow up without the...
...Female genital mutilation is also known as, female genital cutting, and female circumcision. It is practiced in North Eastern, Western, and Eastern Africa, the Middle East, and in immigrant communities in North America and Europe. This practice is not specifically evolved from any religion. It is a procedure that is carried out in order to continue the cultural practice. There are four types of FGM which are: clitoridectomy, clitoridotomy, infibulation, and any other type of procedure carried out to injure the female’s genitals. There are many reasons as to why people have the procedure carried out on their daughters but they are all mostly social and cultural factors. FGM has been declared a humanrights violation by the United Nation as it violates the rights of the child, the rights of women, and many others. Many campaigns have started running in order to create awareness on FGM and to encourage many countries to speak out against FGM by criminalizing the procedure of FGM.
The World Health Organization claims that there are four types of FGM. The first major type is called a clitoredectomy. A clitoridectomy is either the partial or total removal of the clitoris, or sometimes the labia minora. (Zaryckyj, 2009) This is mostly practiced in Sub-Saharan
Africa, East Africa, Egypt, Sudan Indonesia, and the Arabian Peninsula. The Second type of female circumcision is clitoridotomy, which is the splitting or...
...The fight for humanrights has been a lengthy struggle around the world. Many people in the Islamic state of Iran, particularly women and children, have suffered through a life long battle of the government limiting their natural rights, such as freedom and equality, due to religious traditions colliding with the state. Shirin Ebadi, an Iranian lawyer and activist who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2003, is a courageous, kind-hearted woman who was determined to help the people of her country gain their freedoms. Although Shirin Ebadi is widely known for her fight for the justice of women and children, a few critics have considered Ebadi’s efforts as small or limited in shaping reform; however, Ebadi fought her hardest for the freedom her people deserved, and helped her self and others achieve simple goals they thought they could never reach.
The plight of women in Iran has not always been so dire. Between the years from 1925 to 1979, Iranian women benefited greatly from the government’s policies. They had education available, the right to vote, and the right to run in the parliament. However following the Iranian revolution in 1979, when under the new regime of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Iran’s new government gave priority to Islamic tradition, favoring male dominance. Women were suddenly stripped of their rights and benefits, and treated as unequals compared to...
...Gay Marriage: The Recognition of Equal HumanRights
In America, people hold on to the Declaration of Independence as an implementation of their rights. Part of the Declaration of Independence clearly states, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” (Jefferson 80). Gays are human beings too, and they should equally be able to enjoy the humanrights. If we believe that humanrights are equal regardless of their sexual orientation; then why do gays have to struggle for equal positions in the church, law, and psychological equality? Gay people, their families, and their friends are fighting for these rights. They want equality for gays including legal marriage, and marriage benefits that the regular man-woman marriages enjoy.
Gay marriage becomes an option because many gay couples want the equality of humanrights. Gays realize their rights are being abolished by the fact that they are not allowed to legally marry and enjoy the privileges as married couples. Only twelve states in America and District of Columbia legally allow gay marriage. The twelve states are: Connecticut, Delaware, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,...
...Child Marriage: A Silent Health and HumanRights Issue
Marriages in which a child under the age of 18 years is involved occur worldwide, but are mainly seen in South Asia, Africa, and Latin America. A humanrights violation, child marriage directly impacts girls’ education, health, psychologic well-being, and the health of their offspring. It increases the risk for depression, sexually transmitted infection, cervical cancer, malaria, obstetric fistulas, and maternal mortality. Their offspring are at an increased risk for premature birth and, subsequently, neonatal or infant death. The tradition, driven by poverty, is perpetuated to ensure girls’ financial futures and to reinforce social ties. One of the most effective methods of reducing child marriage and its health consequences is mandating that girls stay in school.
Key words: Child marriage, Early marriage, Maternal mortality
Child marriage, defined as marriage of a child under 18 years of age, is a silent and yet widespread practice. Today, over 60 million marriages include girls under the age of 18 years: approximately 31 million in South Asia, 14 million in sub-Saharan Africa, and 6.6 million in Latin America and the Caribbean (Figure 1). Each day, 25,000 girls are married and an anticipated 100 million girls will be married in 2012.1 Over 60% of girls are married under the age of 18 in some sub-Saharan countries and Bangladesh, and...
...What Are Women Rights?
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls of many societies worldwide.
In some places these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behavior, whereas in others they may be ignored or suppressed. They differ from broader notions of humanrights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls in favour of men and boys.
Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include, though are not limited to, the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy; to vote (suffrage); to hold public office; to work; to fair wages or equal pay; to own property; to education; to serve in the military or be conscripted; to enter into legal contracts; and to have marital, parental and religious rights.
Women in Islam:
The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history culture of the Muslim world. The Quran does not explicitly state that men and women are equal, but states in 4:34 that "Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient and guard in the husband's absence what Allah orders them to...
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls of many societies worldwide. In some places, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behaviour, whereas in others they may be ignored or suppressed. They differ from broader notions of humanrights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls in favour of men and boys.
Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include, though are not limited to, the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy; to vote ; to hold public office; to work; to fair wages or equal pay; to own property; to education; to serve in the military or be conscripted; to enter into legal contracts; and to have marital or parental rights.
Although males seem to have dominated in many ancient cultures, there are some exceptions. For instance in the Nigerian Aka culture women may hunt, even on their own, and often control distribution of resources. Ancient Egypt had female rulers, such as Cleopatra.
The status of women in China was low, largely due to the custom of foot binding. About 45% of Chinese women had bound feet in the 19th century. For the upper classes, it was almost 100%. In 1912, the Chinese government ordered the cessation of foot...
...Women's Rights in Islam
In Those days before Islam women were not recognized as independent individuals, they were treated like slaves or things that belong to men. It was called the period of ignorance. All women's rights were denied and ignored; they never had the choice to have a decision in their lives or even be part of the marriage contract. In addition, in times of war women were treated as a part of the prize, and the birth of a daughter was not a happy occasion. Instead, they felt humiliated by it, because the idea of a woman was so much connected to shame and weakness, in a way that made them hide this shame or bury it till death.
Allah (S.W.T) said " and when the news of (the birth of) a female (child) is brought to anyone of them, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with inward grief; he hides himself from the people of the evil of whereof he has been informed. Shall he keep her with dishonor or bury her in the earth? Certainly, evil is their decision." (Al-Nahl 16; 58-59).
However, the western view of Islam and Muslim women is very similar to that view of the period of ignorance (before Islam) which is the extreme opposite of the true Islam. Westerns believe that Islam prevents women from their rights, carrying ideologies that make women nothing but for sex and raising kids. They also believe that Islam makes women inferior to men by salving and controlling them under the concept of...
...Women's Rights 19th century
|Several activists in antislavery joined the women's rights movement. Lucy Stone, Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, Abby Kelley |
|Foster, and Sojourner Truth are among the most well known. Angelina Grimke and her sister, Sarah Grimke worked for women's rights after a |
|career as antislavery lecturers. |
|Wendell Phillips, William Lloyd Garrison, and humanrights advocate Ernestine Rose participated at national women's rights conventions. |
|In 1849 Amelia Bloomer became the editor of the first woman's newspaper, The Lily. Bloomer lived in Seneca Falls, New York and became an |
|outspoken advocate of women's rights, dress reform, and temperance. She was inspired by Elizabeth Smith Miller. |
The importance of women of the 19th century represents the entitlements and freedoms claimed for women and girls of all ages in many societies. The idea is that women should have equalrights with men.
In some places these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behaviour, whereas in others they may be ignored or suppressed. They differ from broader notions of humanrights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias...