International Monterrey Model United Nations Simulation American School Foundation of Monterrey Human Rights Council Topic B: Freedom of speech concerning criticism towards the government Director: Katia Gonzalez (MS), Regina Benitez (HS) Moderator: Claudia Scala (MS), Alexa Vasquez (HS) I. Committee Background The Human Rights Council was established on March 15, 2006 by the United Nations General Assembly, with the goal of addressing and resolving international Human Rights issues. The Human Rights Council is an intergovernmental body within the United Nations system made up of representatives from 47 States,(10) elected by the General Assembly. The Human Rights Council is responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the globe. The current president of this committee is Mr. Sihasak Phuangketkeow, a Thailand national. The members of the HRC are elected into three year terms that are staggered from each other (their terms don’t end at the same time).(10) These members include countries such as Mexico, The United States of America, Poland, the Republic of Korea, France and many others. The main purpose of the HRC is to address situations concerning human rights violations and recommend solutions. Countries can be condemned by the HRC if they commit violations during the sessions that it holds, and can be condemned multiple times. There have been 15 sessions, and 13 special sessions of the HRC since its founding. The HRC over-arches the Commission on Human Rights, and the Sub-commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights. Human rights complaints are filed using a standard complaint procedure(21), and procedure rules concerning the sessions. The resolutions and recommendations that the HRC makes are not binding. They are only recommendations for what should be done to amend the situation. II. Introduction and Description Freedom of speech means expressing your views without censorship, limitation or fear. This topic deals with the criticism towards the government and the quantity and depth of information the citizens are allowed to emit to the public. The importance of this topic consists of the violation of rights that the government imposes on citizens, and the prohibition to speak the “truth”, according to the citizens. This topic has grave importance due to the power of censorship governments have around the world, maintaining certain information as secret and remaining silent towards certain situations that can’t be published to the public in order to prevent chaos and promote transparency. The Problem The dispute between benefits and detriments of stating your opinion disturbs citizens, frequently causing them to prefer to stay silent. Those who AVE. MOR ON ES PRI ET O K M. 1 .5 • SANT A CAT ARIN A, N .L . MÉXIC O 6 6354 TEL EPHON E: (81) 8389-440 0 • FAX: (81) 8389-4455 WWW .I MMUNS.OR G
International Monterrey Model United Nations Simulation American School Foundation of Monterrey do speak up may be punished for their words on topics like corruption in the government, depending on whether the system of government allows the ability to speak freely. Many conflicts also involve the press, for stating their opinions too freely over issues the government would rather keep quiet. Nowadays, both governments and citizens are even limited in their freedom of speech due to powerful groups like drug cartels and mafia organizations. The Controversy The controversy surrounding this topic is based on the amount of liberty that citizens in each country are granted. There are many gray areas in this issue, but the Writers in Prison Committee (WiPC)(24), which was founded in 1960 operates to represent all the writers persecuted or detained for their expression of opinions. Taking into consideration whether or not the writers used any type of hatred in declaring their controversial statements, this committee exists to take action in favor of unfairly judged and imprisoned press....
...Right To Information Act, 2009 : Touchstone of Progress
In recent days the term ‘Right to information’ is becoming more familiar as it is of great significance for being associated with the fundamental humanright “Freedom of information”; recognized by Resolution 59 of the very first session of UN General Assembly held in 1946 as well as by Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR) 1948. In this specific article UDHR states that the fundamental right of freedom of expression includes the freedom “to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.” Article 10(1) of European Convention on HumanRights (ECHR), 1950 accords with the same. The general right of access to information is also included under Article 19(2) of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), 1976, of which covenant Bangladesh has become a party on 6 Sep, 2000. But these are not the inaugural recognition of freedom of information. In fact, it was Sweden which passed its Freedom of the Press Act in 1766, about 200 years before the UN resolution was even adopted. Such erstwhile existence of the right to information laws proves that free access to information is a must to fulfill all other rights in a democratic society. In...
February 14, 2014
Napoleonic Code VS the Bill of Rights
The Napoleonic Code, which was created by Napoleon in 1804, differs greatly from The Bill of Rights, introduced by James Madison and came into effect in 1791. While there are a lot of differences, there are also some similarities between the two. The differences in the two documents are quite obvious. The Bill of Rights concerns the Freedoms that each person is considered to have as a citizen of the United States. The Napoleonic Code unified French law and became the model for legal systems in most other nations in the world. While probably being Napoleon’s most lasting accomplishment, the Napoleonic Code gave Europe a uniform set of laws. The Bill of Rights was in use well before the development of the Napoleonic Code, however some elements of each are similar to the other.
The Bill of Rights was introduced by James Madison to the 1st United States Congress as a series of lawmaking articles. They were accepted by the House of Representatives on August 21, 1789; formally suggested by combined resolve of Congress on September 25, 1789; and came into effect as Constitutional Amendments on December 15, 1791, through the process of approval by three-fourths of the states. The Bill of Rights counts freedoms not openly shown in the main part of the Constitution; such as freedom of religion, freedom of speech, a free press,...
...Right to Information In Bangladesh
Introduction: The Right to Information is the key to all other rights. It is among the most important instruments to effectively empower those to whom power should belong in democracy - the people. The United Nations has called it the touchstone of all the freedoms to which UN is consecrated.3 The history of the recognition of the right to information is much older though. The first country to have the RTI law was Finland and Sweden in 1766 when the former was a territory governed by Sweden. The joint Parliament of the then Finland and Sweden adopted the first RTI law of the world titled Access to Public Records Act, 1766. Nearly seventy countries have since enacted RTI law or act, of which over 40 have done so during the decade of nineties and thereafter. The newly elected Government of Bangladesh adopted the Right to Information Act in the first session of the 9th Parliament on March 29, 2009, marking a significant step forward in fulfilling the constitutional pledge of the state of Bangladesh.
This upsurge of the RTI law worldwide comes as an indicator of the growing recognition of the importance of the citizens’ access to information as a catalyst for strengthening democracy, promoting humanrights and good governance, and fighting corruption. Enactment of RTI laws has in many cases taken persistent efforts of campaign. and...
2010, April 27
Right To Information Act 2009
M S Siddiqui
A citizen of a free and democratic country has the right to have access to information and know everything happening around him. It is a fundamental right of every citizen as enshrined in the UN resolution in its very first session in 1946, stating that 'Freedom of information is a fundamental humanright.'
It is interesting to note that the right to information laws existed about 200 years before the UN resolution was adopted. Sweden passed its Freedom of the Press Act in 1766.
Access to information is a basic democratic right. The access to information or freedom of expression is the precondition to fulfillment of all other rights in a democratic society.
The developing countries are lagging behind in this respect. There is pressure from media and civil society groups, both domestic and international, for greater access to government information. International bodies, donors such as World Bank, International Monetary Fund etc. are promoting such laws in developing countries and have drafted guidelines or model legislation to promote freedom of information. This is an effort on their part to increase government transparency and reduce corruption. Transparency challenges corruption and creates opportunities for the poor and neglected people.
...DISADVANTAGES OF INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS
Advantages and disadvantages of individual rights and public order
University of Phoenix
Advantages and disadvantages of individual rights and public order
Every human being deserves to have Individual rights and they are a very important part of the justice system. Without individual rights things would be chaotic therefore, public order is brought into the system so that everyone’s individual rights are in place for each individual to use as a backbone for guidelines of what is acceptable and what is not. Although, there are disadvantages and advantages of both individual rights and public order they are still very essential to maintain order.
Individual rights are distinct from civil or legal rights as these are rights granted by government to citizens and will vary with the organization and administration of governments. Individual rights identify a boundary of just social interaction in presence or absence of government (Wikipedia). Many people do not realize all the advantages that America gives us. The Bill of Rights is the backbone to what freedom is all about. The purpose of a Bill of Rights is to prevent anyone from violating the rights of anyone else. So long as they respect the...
...“Declaration of the Rights of Man” Comparison
The longest lasting effect of Napoleon Bonaparte's rule over France was his overseeing the implementation of a series of national laws collectively known as the Civil Code, or Code Napoleon. Code Napoleon was the successor to the idea’s stated in The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, While at first, Napoleon generally adhered to the philosophies of the French Revolutionist as created in The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, as time progressed, his absolute power allowed for corruption at the expense of the French people. Napoleon violated almost every principle in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen in order to benefit his own means. He did, though, support several principles, primarily already manifested with the Napoleonic Code. These principles would ultimately always benefit him. "Code Napoleon" proved to live up to the ideals expressed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man, by incorporating the great principles of 1789: freedom of religion, protection of private property, abolition of serfdom, and secularization of the state, but also failed to live up to many of the main ideas traced in the prior law code including equality before the law, careers open to talent, and freedom of opinion.
Even though many ideas from the French revolution of may have been included in Code Napoleon, many were not entirely...
SSC 102 – Global Perspective
The Universal Declaration of HumanRights
“THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMANRIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for theserights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.”
The above statement was pulled directly from the declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948 in Paris, France. The declaration was created due to the disadvantages learned during World War II. It was the first deposition created concerning the rights of all human beings across the globe. The declaration is comprised of 30 articles which “elaborate in subsequent international treaties, regional humanrights instruments, national constitutions and laws.” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Universal_Declaration_of_Human_Rights)
During World War II the Allies, which...
...Classification of HumanRights
During World War II, about 70 million people were killed. Innocent civilians such as children, women, the elderly and students without any reason were killed during the war. However, in contemporary society, when our life is at risk, we will exercise our rights to protect ourselves, not to be hurt. Nevertheless, until 1948, most of the people cannot exercise their rights. As a result, the majority of people because of class, gender, race, religion, and so on suffered violence or were killed. For this reason, humanrights were for the first time emphasized in the Universal Declaration on HumanRights (UDHR) in 1948 after World War II. What are humanrights? Humanrights are the most basic rights and freedoms that belong to every person in the world. As a result, humanrights included the right to personal liberty and due process of law. Also, it meant the freedom of thought, expression, religion, and organization along with freedom from discrimination based on race, religion, age, language, and sex. It also included employment to property. In order to understand these rights, humanrights been classified into five categories: civil, political, economic and social, cultural, and...