1. Title of the Case: ABBOTT LABORATORIES: DRUG PRICING CHUTZPAH
2. Statement of the Problem:
* Is the increase of the anti-AIDS drug Norvir by Abbott justifiable?
3. Statement of Relevant Facts from the Case
i. The company (Abbott) raised its anti-AIDS drug Norvir by 400 percent unless the product is used in conjunction with other Abbott products where there will be no price increase. ii. Norvir is generally too toxic for safe use as a protease inhibitor however works well as a booster to increase the efficacy of other protease inhibitors however the price increase of Norivr does not apply when the product is used as a booster with another of Abbot’s protease inhibitor product Kaletra. iii. Price increase applies to private insurers and to uninsured individuals. iv. The drug was invented on a grant from the U.S. federal government.
4. Statement of Alternative Courses of Actions
a. Lower the increase of the price without any conditions (like there will be no increase in the price if used with other Abbott’s products) b. NIH should review the price of the drug as based on the Bayh-Dole Act
5. Evaluation of the Strengths and Weaknesses of each Alternatives (3 each) Strength of Action a.
i. Lowering the price increase by at least 200% would give the company lower profit however, by having no condition there will be a lot more demand for the product. ii. Product and company loyalty will increase.
iii. Reducing the complaints about the spike increase of the drug.
Weakness of Action a.
i. This will decrease the profit of the company as its other products will have its demand reduced. ii. As its profit will decrease, it will also lead to decrease in the medicinal development of the company. iii. The company will have to increase its supply of Norvir as it will increase the demand in turn will increase the production cost of Norvir but will decrease the budget for other drug productions.
Strength of Action b.
i. The government will be given a positive view for reviewing the drug price increase. ii. There will be lesser complaints about eh price of the drug. iii. This will in turn give healthy competition regarding the selling of the drug. iv. This will give a warning to other drug developing companies about their actions.
Weakness of Action b.
i. By having the government interfere, the image of the company would be negative. ii. It will contradict the statement of NIH about them not having authority to consider the price. iii. The company will complaint about the actions of the government.
6. Selection and Justification of Chosen Alternative (3 each) Selection and Justification of Action a.
i. This action more or less gives the customers a fair pricing compared to the 400% increase. ii. It is ethical that the price of a drug should be as they said reasonable in order as it is a life-or-death AIDS drug as mentioned by Representative Brown. iii. As a company dealing with products related to health, profit should be less taken into consideration as well as rivalry. iv. This action won’t make the government interfere in which case would be a more negative impact for the company.
Selection and Justification of Action b.
i. In times where the customers are aggravated, government should interfere. ii. The action of Abbott is similar to monopolistic actions as they want that their products to be the only one that will be bought and it will lead to unhealthy competition in the market in which case the government should interfere. iii. Bayh-Dole Act says government-funded inventions should be made “available to the public on reasonable terms” in which case, the drug which is a government-funded development is not in its reasonable price.
7. Significant Financial and Business issues and implication of the case (5) v. As a company which is for...
...Are humanrights innate and universal?
Post WWII on the 10 December 1948, the Universal Declaration of HumanRights (UDHR) was espoused by the General Assembly of the United Nations in order to agree on the notion that such atrocities that occurred throughout the Great War and the Second World War would not ever be reciprocated. The document that was drawn up in less than two years by the UN and Western states, and although ambitious it would guarantee a premise for life and living for every individual all over the world. The UDHR are founded on nobility, equality and reverence, and are said to be aimed at all cultures and religions within the West and East of the globe. However there is great discrepancy regarding the justification and practicality of humanrights all over the world due to political, economic and cultural differences and limitations. Universal means that ‘something’ affects, applies or is completed by everyone all over the world – there is no distinctive bias shown and equal policies are applied. Innate, in relation to humanrights, means that people are given natural rights purely based on the fact that he/she is human and alive. Therefore, are humanrights universal and innate or is the Universal Declaration of Human...
...Humanrights in today’s world have become pivotal to the functioning of our society as a whole, largely due to the increased occurrences which in turn have led to greater awareness and repudiation of the same in the world community. In present times the humanrights field encompasses a broad range of civil, political, economic and social rights which shows its all pervasive nature, and the accountability for the violation of these rights by state and non-state actors alike. The scope of humanrights in today’s day and age has thus widened considerably as gradually the individual becomes an end in himself and is recognized as being of primordial concern.
Humanrights law is a subset in the field of humanrights. Humanrights are what define a society; hence the humanrights law takes primacy over all the laws. There is nothing more important than the development of humanrights in an evolving society
Humanrights and criminal law are closely inter - related. My personal interest lies towards humanrights as under the criminal law. Today we see all kinds of crimes being committed- state or non-state, say torture of prisoners, child labour, or most importantly...
...HRV1601: HumanRights, Values and Social Transformation
Semester 01/ Assignment 01
The Historical Background and Development of HumanRights
Table of Contents
2) The Development of HumanRights
3) Historical Documents of HumanRights
3.1) The English Bill ofRights (1689)
3.2) The American War of Independence (1775-1783)
4) Developing and Maintaining a HumanRights Culture in South Africa
5) The South African Constitution
6) The South African Bill of Rights
A right is an inherent, irrevocable entitlement held by all human beings from the moment of birth. According to Ndungane (as stated in Slater 2010:19), “A humanright is a right that a human person has simply by virtue of being a human person, irrespective of his or her social status, cultural accomplishments, moral merits, religious beliefs, class membership or cultural relationships”. Basic humanrights are not earned or deserved, and should not be considered a privilege, but an imperative implement for the well-being and peacefulness of mankind. This...
...Humanrights in Pakistan:-
Pakistan’s humanrights situation is a complex one, as a result of the country's diversity, large population, its status as a developing country and a sovereign, Islamic republic as well as an Islamic democracy with a mixture of both Islamic and colonial secular laws. The Constitution of Pakistan provides for fundamental rights, which include freedom of speech, freedom of thought, freedom of information, freedom of religion, freedom of association, freedom of the press, freedom of assembly and the right to bear arms. These clauses are generally respected in practice. Clauses also provide for an independent Supreme Court, separation of executive and judiciary, an independent judiciary, independent HumanRights commission and freedom of movement within the country and abroad.
Although the government has enacted measures to counter any problems, abuses remain. Furthermore, courts suffer from lack of funds, outside intervention, and deep case backlogs that lead to long trial delays and lengthy pretrial detentions. Many observers inside and outside Pakistan contend that Pakistan’s legal code is largely concerned with crime, national security, and domestic tranquility and less with the protection of individual rights.
In May 2012, President Asif Ali Zardari signed the National Commission for Human...
...slavery, sickness and other arbitrary executions. To prevent such atrocities in the future, there are legal responses and non-legal responses to deal with the contemporary humanrights issues which is genocide.
First of all, legal responses refer to the UN humanright treaties and Genocide Convention that were adopted in 1948 and approved the Universal Declaration of HumanRight (UDHR) by the United Nation.
The Genocide Convention (1948) outlaws genocide, crime against humanity and crime under international law . All participating countries that ratified the convention will be prevented and punished the genocide in the war or a peace of time.
The Declarations defines the civil and political rights ( including the right to life, the right of liberty, and a fair trial) as well as the economic social and cultural rights( including the right to social security and participating in cultural right in one’s community).
In this case, Cambodia was a party that ratified the Genocide Convention on 14.10.1950. It was enforceable where the Senior Leader of Khmer Rouge between1975 -1979 under the definition of Convention. In contradiction, it was enforceable but it could not desist the massacre that happened in the 1975-1979.
Next, Cambodia was ratified the UDHR and International Convention on...
An environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an assessment of the possible positive or negative impact that a proposed project may have on the environment, together consisting of the environmental, social and economic aspects.
The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the ensuing environmental impacts when deciding whether to proceed with a project. The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as "the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made." EIAs are unique in that they do not require adherence to a predetermined environmental outcome, but rather they require decision makers to account for environmental values in their decisions and to justify those decisions in light of detailed environmental studies and public comments on the potential environmental impacts of the proposal.
EIAs began to be used in the 1960s as part of a rational decision making process. It involved a technical evaluation that would lead to objective decision making. EIA was made legislation in the US in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 1969. It has since evolved as it has been used increasingly in many countries around the world. As per Jay et al.(2006), EIA as it is practiced today, is being used as a...
...Humanrights are universal, indivisible and interdependent. Humanrights are what make us human. When we speak of the right to life, or development, or to dissent and diversity, we are speaking of tolerance. Tolerance will ensure all freedoms. Without it, we can be certain of none.
<br>The raging ethnic cleansing in Kosovo is an example of intolerance. The Serbians will not tolerate the Albanians at any cost. They are forcing them from their homes, turning the streets into killing fields. This civil war seems unstoppable because of the intolerance of one race against another. No respect for individual rights, basic humanrights.
<br>Another example is right in our own back yard. I am speaking of hate crimes which plague our society. They are no different today than centuries ago when slavery was allowed. One race against another. One religion against another, it is all the same. Hate is the opposite of tolerance. We can only live together through an expression of tolerance of the differences each of us brings into this world. We should embrace the differences and share the differences. For this is how we learn, through each others' differences. Tolerance in all cultures is the basis of peace and progress.
<br>Our country was founded on the basic idea that all man and women are created equal with liberty and justice for...
A right that is believed to belong justifiably to every person. Humanrights are commonly understood as "inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being. Humanrights are thus conceived as universal (applicable everywhere) and egalitarian (the same for everyone). Theserights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights, in both national andinternational law.
What are humanrights?
Humanrights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status. We are all equally entitled to our humanrights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated, interdependent and indivisible.
Universal humanrights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. International humanrights law lays down obligations of Governments to act in certain ways or to refrain from certain acts, in order to promote and protect...