The Cyrus Cylinder (539 B.C.)
The decrees Cyrus made on human rights were inscribed in the Akkadian language on a baked-clay cylinder.
Cyrus the Great, the first king of Persia, freed the slaves of Babylon, 539 B.C. In 539 B.C., the armies of Cyrus the Great, the first king of ancient Persia, conquered the city of Babylon. But it was his next actions that marked a major advance for Man. He freed the slaves, declared that all people had the right to choose their own religion, and established racial equality. These and other decrees were recorded on a baked-clay cylinder in the Akkadian language with cuneiform script. Known today as the Cyrus Cylinder, this ancient record has now been recognized as the world’s first charter of human rights. It is translated into all six official languages of the United Nations and its provisions parallel the first four Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Spread of Human Rights
From Babylon, the idea of human rights spread quickly to India, Greece and eventually Rome. There the concept of “natural law” arose, in observation of the fact that people tended to follow certain unwritten laws in the course of life, and Roman law was based on rational ideas derived from the nature of things. Documents asserting individual rights, such as the Magna Carta (1215), the Petition of Right (1628), the US Constitution (1787), the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789), and the US Bill of Rights (1791) are the written precursors to many of today’s human rights documents. http://humanrights.com/what-are-human-rights/brief-history/cyrus-cylinder.html Human Rights
The Magna Carta (1215)
Magna Carta, or “Great Charter,” signed by the King of England in 1215, was a turning point in human rights. The Magna Carta, or “Great Charter,” was arguably the most significant early influence on the extensive historical process that led to the rule of constitutional law today in the English-speaking world. In 1215, after King John of England violated a number of ancient laws and customs by which England had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, which enumerates what later came to be thought of as human rights. Among them was the right of the church to be free from governmental interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and inherit property and to be protected from excessive taxes. It established the right of widows who owned property to choose not to remarry, and established principles of due process and equality before the law. It also contained provisions forbidding bribery and official misconduct. Widely viewed as one of the most important legal documents in the development of modern democracy, the Magna Carta was a crucial turning point in the struggle to establish freedom. Petition of Right (1628)
In 1628 the English Parliament sent this statement of civil liberties to King Charles I. The next recorded milestone in the development of human rights was the Petition of Right, produced in 1628 by the English Parliament and sent to Charles I as a statement of civil liberties. Refusal by Parliament to finance the king’s unpopular foreign policy had caused his government to exact forced loans and to quarter troops in subjects’ houses as an economy measure. Arbitrary arrest and imprisonment for opposing these policies had produced in Parliament a violent hostility to Charles and to George Villiers, the Duke of Buckingham. The Petition of Right, initiated by Sir Edward Coke, was based upon earlier statutes and charters and asserted four principles: (1) No taxes may be levied without consent of Parliament, (2) No subject may be imprisoned without cause shown (reaffirmation of the right of habeas corpus), (3) No soldiers may be quartered upon the citizenry, and (4) Martial law may not be used in time of peace. Human Rights
...The International Humanitarian Law, HumanRights and Syria.
Over the past few years the world has witnessed a series of events that have been triggering throughout several countries in the Middle East, against the authoritarian regimes of the region. One of the most recent events of the Arab Spring has emerged in Syria, where its people referred as “the rebels” have decided to confront the government of the actual president Bashar Al Assad. The situation in Syria has become so alarming that it has captured the attention of countries throughout the world and also from international organizations like the UN and the ICRC, in order to try and intervene to stabilize the situation. The ICRC has tried to intervene in Syria focusing on the International Humanitarian Law (IHL), which is built out of the four Geneva Conventions to protect those involved in the conflict and try to get to an agreement between both sides of the conflict. In spite of trying to intervene in this armed conflict between rebels and the government, the Red Cross or in this case the Red Crescent has not been able to successfully help as an impartial entity because of the lack of cooperation from both sides. While other international organizations like the United Nations have been debating to intervene in the conflict not only for the amount of violations in the conflict from The UN Declaration of HumanRights, but also because it has been proven the...
...Gay Marriage: The Recognition of Equal HumanRights
In America, people hold on to the Declaration of Independence as an implementation of their rights. Part of the Declaration of Independence clearly states, “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness” (Jefferson 80). Gays are human beings too, and they should equally be able to enjoy the humanrights. If we believe that humanrights are equal regardless of their sexual orientation; then why do gays have to struggle for equal positions in the church, law, and psychological equality? Gay people, their families, and their friends are fighting for these rights. They want equality for gays including legal marriage, and marriage benefits that the regular man-woman marriages enjoy.
Gay marriage becomes an option because many gay couples want the equality of humanrights. Gays realize their rights are being abolished by the fact that they are not allowed to legally marry and enjoy the privileges as married couples. Only twelve states in America and District of Columbia legally allow gay marriage. The twelve states are: Connecticut, Delaware, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts,...
February 14, 2014
Napoleonic Code VS the Bill of Rights
The Napoleonic Code, which was created by Napoleon in 1804, differs greatly from The Bill of Rights, introduced by James Madison and came into effect in 1791. While there are a lot of differences, there are also some similarities between the two. The differences in the two documents are quite obvious. The Bill of Rights concerns the Freedoms that each person is considered to have as a citizen of the United States. The Napoleonic Code unified French law and became the model for legal systems in most other nations in the world. While probably being Napoleon’s most lasting accomplishment, the Napoleonic Code gave Europe a uniform set of laws. The Bill of Rights was in use well before the development of the Napoleonic Code, however some elements of each are similar to the other.
The Bill of Rights was introduced by James Madison to the 1st United States Congress as a series of lawmaking articles. They were accepted by the House of Representatives on August 21, 1789; formally suggested by combined resolve of Congress on September 25, 1789; and came into effect as Constitutional Amendments on December 15, 1791, through the process of approval by three-fourths of the states. The Bill of Rights counts freedoms not openly shown in the main part of the Constitution; such as freedom of religion, freedom of speech, a free press,...
...Law Prisoner Rights
Of all forms of punishment, the death penalty is by far the most controversial and also the most rarely used. Capital punishment was once almost the only penalty applied to convicted felons. By the time of the American Revolution, the English courts had defined more than 200 felonies, all of which were “capital offenses”. However, many death penalties were not carried out; instead, offenders were pardoned or banished to penal colonies. Over time, courts and legislatures began to recognize other forms of punishment, such as imprisonment and probation.
In the times of the American colonies, capital punishment was used extensively in England and in the early American colonies, as many crimes other than murder resulted in a penalty of death. Corporal punishments, often very brutal, also often resulted in death as the imposition of such torture severely injured the offender. Both torture and executions were often carried out in public, as a deterrent to others. The idea was that if others saw what the punishment was for such a crime, that perhaps the said crime would be prevented from happening altogether. Public executions, however, were ceased in 1936 when several thousand people witnessed the execution by hanging of a black man convicted of raping and murdering a white woman in Kentucky.
Prisoner rights are based on a general principle that each prisoner will be deprived of liberty, but will still be entitled to...
Civil liberties are vital and valuable for the American society. The right of privacy is one of the most important rights that a person can have as an individual. The bill of Rights does not have an amendment that mentions a right to privacy, however “the first Congress had the concept of privacy in mind when it crafted the first 10 amendments” (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2008, p. 131). “Today, one of the greatest debates concerning American’s civil liberties lies in the emerging area of privacy rights” (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2008, p. 130). Abortion is a topic of controversy, and I decided to write about abortion because abortion is the perfect example to describe a civil liberty. As a couple has the right to family plan, they also have the right to whether have a baby or practice an abortion. Abortion means the interruption or termination of pregnancy.
“The idea that the Constitution guarantees a right to privacy was first enunciated in a court case in 1965, in which a family violated a Connecticut law by disseminating a birth control device” (Edwards, Wattenberg, & Lineberry, 2008, p. 132 ). Pro-life believes in one of the most important American values, which is life and their opinion is that abortion should not happen because that means talking someone’s life. The Roe v. Wade believes in another important American value, which...
...Right to Life, Right to Voice
For decades the idea of abortion is one of the most important ethical issues ever concerned in United States. Should abortion be allowed in the United States? If so under what circumstances the practice should be allowed? Abortion which is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy has been one of the most intensely debated matters in the United States for more than a century. Therefore, this paper will examine all the interpretation of the issue. It will explore the history of abortion, the reality and moral rights made by both parties that argue the issue. This paper will also explain political positions taken on abortion and examined those affected by it.
Abortion is a process that has been practiced since ancient times. The first recorded of abortion dates back to 2600 B.C. according to Werner Haas in the article History of Abortion. In the United States abortion dates back to the early 1800’s it was a means of controlling the population. According to Judy Norsigian practice of abortion was outlawed in the United States in 1880. However, about 2 million abortions in a year were illegally performed after it was outlawed. Although the number of death induced by illegal abortions is not exactly known scholars state that “approximately five thousand women died annually in the U.S. because of unsafe abortions and several hundred thousand women a year were treated for health complications due to...
English 101-11 Composition 1
Limitations on One's Rights and Freedom of Speech
How many times have you wanted to express your honest opinion about an issue that concerns you, but you held back because you know in doing so it would lead to unwanted consequences? Many people question the First Amendment due to the fact that some people take advantage of it and use it for the wrong reason. The First Amendment allows you to speak your mind and express any feelings that you might have towards groups, religions, thoughts, or ideas. James Madison once stated, “As long as the reason of man continues fallible, and he is at liberty to exercise it, different opinions will be formed”(Brainyquotes.com). However, with wrong intentions people use the First Amendment to lean on and bend the Bill of Rights as far as they can. The First Amendment should be relied on for the right reasons that consist of honesty and integrity. The First Amendment should not be relied on when we choose to not take responsibility for our own actions.
Over 200 years ago, the First Amendment along with the other nine were introduced by James Madison in order to keep the government from violating basic American civil liberties. According to the First Amendment, “The right to freedom of speech allows individuals to express themselves without interference or constraint by the government. The Supreme Court A...
...Summary of the Article III of the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines
Bill of Rights
Article III enumerates the fundamental rights of the Filipino people. The Bill of Rights sets the limits to the government's power which proves to be not absolute. Among the rights of the people are freedoms of speech, assembly, religion, and the press. An important feature here is the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus which have three available grounds such as invasion, insurrection and rebellion.
Section 1. No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.
- no person shall be deprived of life or principles and dignity without due Process of law or guidelines should be fair then all the protection of each.
Section 2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons or things to be seized.
- humanrights and...