In the past, Hong Kong education was closely modeled on the system that was found in the UK. This is hardly surprising since Hong Kong was administered by Britain from 1841 to 1997, when the former UK colony was handed back to China. However, since 1997, the education system taught in local schools has undergone a series of changes. While some of these changes have reflected different language of instruction policies, there have also been changes to the senior secondary curriculum. The new model, brought in at the beginning of the 2009/10 academic year, is now more in line with those found in China and even the USA. While there are nine years of compulsory schooling in Hong Kong, six in primary school and three in junior secondary school, the Hong Kong government has recently moved to make it easier and more likely that the majority of students will receive 12 years of education. The removal of fees and one series of public exams in senior secondary school is a move which will make a full twelve years’ of education a much more accessible option for a great number of students. There has always been schooling beyond the years of compulsory education. The majority of students attend 3 years of kindergarten (K1 – K3) before attending primary school. Under the new secondary system, the three years of junior secondary is followed by three years of senior secondary. This leads to the HKDSE (Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education) exams. Students gain entry to a range of post-secondary, vocational and tertiary courses offered by a variety of institutions based on the results of the HKDSE. The majority of university courses offered by Hong Kong universities will also undergo a change in structure for students graduating with the HKDSE. Many courses will become 4 year programmes, partly in response to the change from four years to three years in the senior secondary years.HK Education
The schools provided by the Hong Kong Education Department (EDB – Education Bureau) can be divided into three main groups: government schools; subsidized schools, which are usually administered by charitable bodies; and private schools run by different organizations where admission is more often decided by academic merit (schools such as DBC and DGS are example of these types of schools).
Aside from the government system, there are private independent schools. The style of education, the language(s) of instruction and the international curricula offered by these schools appeal to both expatriate and local parents. Many of these schools have waiting lists and all charge higher (and in many cases, much higher) tuition fees than local schools.
In the past, the local education system has been very exam-orientated. However, in recent years there have been some moves towards fewer exams ad more continuous and formative assessment. Schools usually have a strict discipline code and virtually all students wear school uniform.
Primary schools used to be separated into morning (AM) and afternoon (PM) schools as a method of dealing with the problems of a lack of space and the large student numbers. However, with changing demographics and a falling birth rate, most primary schools have moved to become whole-day schools.
While most schools are co-ed, there are a number of well-known schools with good reputations which are single-sex.
Since 1997, there have been changes to a lot of kindergartens as a way of professionalizing them. Most of the changes have involved minimum teaching qualifications for both kindergarten teaching staff and principals. As the government has also placed more emphasis on the importance of early childhood education, the curriculum in kindergarten has now been designed to provide a sound foundation for students.
The majority of local Primary schools in Hong Kong are Chinese medium of instruction and the primary curriculum covers a wide range of subjects including Social...
...Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS) in primary and secondary education in HongKong. Take two traditional well-known schools as case examples (one DSS and the other non-DSS) to illustrate your answer.
The educationsystem in HongKong is centrally administered by the Education and Manpower Bureau (EMB). The role of the EMB is mainly to monitor and regulate both the aided and government schools. As a result, the services of schools provided to students are remarkably homogeneous and cannot meet the diversified needs of parents. Under this situation, the government encourages different private education bodies to play a more innovative role in HongKongeducationsystem so to provide more choices and better quality education service to the public. (Tung, 1999; EMB, 2004)
2. Background of Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS)
In the 1970s, the implementation of the 9-year Compulsory Education policy had led to huge upsurge in the demand of student places at schools. As there was a huge gap between the supply and demand, the government planned to put forward the Bought Place System (BPS) scheme to buy places from the private schools. However, this policy was not supported by private schools...
...In HongKong, gifted education was not placed as an education policy until the release of Education Commission Report No. 4 in 1990, which addressed serious inadequacies in gifted education for HongKongs most bright and talented students (Education Commission Report No. 4, 1990). In 1995, Fung Hon Chu Gifted Education Centre was established for promoting and supporting gifted students, parents and teachers. In response to the increasing demand on gifted education, the Gifted Education Section of Education Manpower Bureau (now EDB) was formally established in 2003 to implement the gifted education policy. In 2006, HongKong Government announced the establishment of the HongKong Academy for Gifted Education (HKAGE) which was formally established in 2008 to offer education programs for secondary gifted students nominated by schools. HKAGEs service extended to primary gifted students in 2012. Three-Tier Framework In HongKong, the Three-Tiers-Framework was formulated in 2002 to act as the gifted education policy in HongKong. Generally, Tier 1 is designed to accommodate learners in the general education classroom,...
...Essay #1: Education
When it comes to education, many people automatically have a negative reaction; especially when discussing the United States’ educational system. Whether it is grade school or a higher education, most people would agree that something needs to be changed. However, finding the specific “what” that should be changed in the educationsystem is hard, because it’s failure is a combination of many things, rather than one direct problem. As citizens, we know that flaws are expected in any sort of process/system and the educationsystem, being so vast, is bound to have many issues in its own. Authors and scholars from around the world, such as Jonathan Kozol, David Orr, Sir Ken Robinson and many others, help present these flaws to the public through intense persuasive and informational writing/speaking. Data shows that the United States has been and continues to fall behind other countries like Finland, HongKong, Canada, Japan, and Korea in typical testing of subjects like mathematics, science, and reading (Husén 455). Standards of education are varying from country to country and this is a direct reflection of differing goals per country on national scale, in terms of education. The United States has seemingly lower overall standards of education, as...
...gain …... associated with the
expectation of housing occupation” (Levin and Wright, 1997). To counter the activities of
speculators, there are a number of possible solutions for the government. Increasing the
supply for first-time users, however, is the most comprehensive method to solve this
problem. The following paragraphs will first analyze the seriousness of housing
speculation. Then, it will introduce three-fold possible solutions and discuss the best
solution to curb the speculation.
Housing speculation has become serious since 2009 in when people overcame the
financial tsunami. In fact, average residential properties prices increased by around 24%
in 2010 following a 30 percent up in the previous year (Yung, 2011), but HongKong
average income rate only rose by 3.3 percent from 2009 to 2010 (the Census and
Statistics Department, 2011). Comparing the two figures, it is unaffordable for many
Hongkongers below 40 years of age to buy their own houses or apartments because
their salary increment may not correspond to the rapid increase in housing price. If
housing speculation continues to deteriorate continually, the benefits of real users will
be harmed as well as social stability.
Tsang Ka Lam
First, the government can collect Special Stamp Duty (SSD) from speculators to
curb the speculation but it cannot counter the activities of large speculators. Conpa CPA
...Education Reform in HongKong: 334 System
There are a number of controversies and debates on recent education reforms in HongKong. The most recent and debatable one is 334 EducationSystem in 2012. In the following, it will first briefly look into the old and new educationsystem. Also, it will explore the implications of the neweducationsystem to see the causes and consequences.
By 2012, the 334 EducationSystem replaced the 3223 EducationSystem. The two systems are structurally different from each other. For the 3223 EducationSystem (old system), there are three years for middle school (form one to form three), two years for high school (from four to form five), two years for preparatory school (form six to form seven) and three years for university. Also, in the 3223 EducationSystem, there are two external examinations, namely HKCEE and HKALE. For the 334 EducationSystem (new system), it is structurally different. There are three years for secondary school, three years for senior secondary school and four years for university. Compared to the 3223 EducationSystem,...
...Taxation Systems in HongKong
According to the “Final Report to the Financial Secretary” prepared by the Advisory Committee on New Broad-based Taxes set up the HongKong Government in 2001, the definitions of three major taxation principles, efficient, effective, and equitable are explained in below. Efficient means a taxation system “must be operationally efficient to minimize compliance cost for taxpayers and administration cost for government”. Effective is defined as a system that is “revenue productive. They should produce the amount of tax revenue required in a timely manner. Revenue yield should be sustainable over time and be insulated as far as reasonably possible from adverse economic cycles”. Equitable means “taxing in proportion to taxpayers’ abilities to pay”. There are two types of equity a tax system should achieve: vertical equity and horizontal equity. While vertical equity concerns with the ability to pay, horizontal equity is about economic neutrality. It means a tax system should have a minimal impact on economic decisions and resource allocation in the private sector. In the following, the merits of the three most common taxation mechanisms, income tax, property tax, and sales tax are analysed in terms of their efficiency, effectiveness, and equitability in application to the local situation of Hong...
...HONGKONG SHUE YAN UNIVERSITY
BUS 405 TAX PLANNING
Mr. Herbert Lee, a Singaporean, is being offered a job from a U.S. based company, Gateway Corporation. According to the proposed employment contract, Mr. Lee will have to meet the management team in the US and sign the contract there. His job is to oversee and supervise the operations of the Corporation’s various affiliated companies in the Far East region, includingHongKong. He is expected to travel extensively in the region but for convenience purposes, he will be sent to and be accommodated in the office of Gateroom Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Gateway Corporation in HongKong. No contract is to be signed between Mr. Lee and Gateroom Ltd but it is agreed that Gateroom Ltd will provide all administrative support to Mr. Lee especially when he stayed in HongKong to perform his duties. Gateroom Ltd will charge back its administrative costs (including travelling and telephone costs) to the US parent in respect of its support given. Mr. Lee is required to report directly to the US parent in respect of the operation performance of respective companies in the region. His salary will however be paid in Singapore dollars into his bank account in Singapore.
Mr. Lee understands that HongKong taxation system is limited by...
...PCLL Conversion Examination June 2011 Examiner’s Comments HongKong Legal System The examination consisted of three questions two of which were compulsory. The three
questions addressed: HK sources of law, jury service and reciprocity between the HKSAR and PRC legal systems. The examination was held over two hours and written on a closed book basis. As with past exams, the examiners prepared a list of factors in advance of the examination that were relevant to answering each question. Thus, to answer the questions successfully, candidates needed to address a majority of those factors and to do so in a in a structured and relevant manner. Candidates should have also been able to express themselves in a clear and succinct manner. In order to answer the questions satisfactorily, candidates needed to have been able to cite relevant sources of law and/or major commentators in each area, as appropriate. The overall standard was not very good and was, impressionistically, not as good as in previous sessions. There were a very small number of papers that could be said to have attained even a very good, let alone excellent, standard. The vast majority were at the level of a very bare pass. On the whole, the same reasons for the poor standard of performance were present as in previous sessions: lack of relevant knowledge, lack of comprehension of the scope and parameters of each question, failure to address the question...