What do human rights have to do with HIV and AIDS?
Human rights are inextricably linked with the spread and impact of HIV on individuals and communities around the world. A lack of respect for human rights fuels the spread and exacerbates the impact of the disease, while at the same time HIV undermines progress in the realisation of human rights. This link is apparent in the disproportionate incidence and spread of the disease among certain groups which, depending on the nature of the epidemic and the prevailing social, legal and economic conditions, include women and children, and particularly those living in poverty. It is also apparent in the fact that the overwhelming burden of the epidemic today is borne by developing countries, where the disease threatens to reverse vital achievements in human development. AIDS and poverty are now mutually reinforcing negative forces in many developing countries.
The relationship between HIV/AIDS and human rights is highlighted in three areas: Increased vulnerability: Certain groups are more vulnerable to contracting the HIV virus because they are unable to realize their civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights. For example, individuals who are denied the right to freedom of association and access to information may be precluded from discussing issues related to HIV, participating in AIDS service organizations and self-help groups, and taking other preventive measures to protect themselves from HIV infection. Women, and particularly young women, are more vulnerable to infection if they lack of access to information, education and services necessary to ensure sexual and reproductive health and prevention of infection. The unequal status of women in the community also means that their capacity to negotiate in the context of sexual activity is severely undermined. People living in poverty often are unable to access HIV care and treatment, including antiretrovirals and other medications for opportunistic...
Because a new HIV diagnosis can be stressful to an individual, it is not only important to seek follow-up care from a medical standpoint, but from a mental and spiritual standpoint as well. Some follow-up recommendations may include:
1. Prompt medical treatment for initiation of antiretroviral medications, appropriate vaccine administration
2. Continuation of medical care including taking prescribed medication, even when not symptomatic.
3. Education regarding changes in behaviors to reduce risk of transmission to others.
4. Referrals to behavioral and psychological services to assist with emotional needs as well as assistance with coping strategies to deal with the many changes that accompany the diagnosis.
5. Encouragement to seek spiritual care and companionship.
6. Education regarding reproductive choices and contraceptive information.1
What is hiv?
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, which leads to immunosuppression. The immunosuppression can cause opportunistic infections, cancer, central nervous system degeneration, and death. HIV is transmitted from person to person from sexual contact, blood contact, or from mother to infant.. 2 HIV is generally classified into three categories; the primary infection phase, the latent phase, and the overt AIDS infection phase. The progression of these phases typically spans 8-12 years. Many people have symptoms after their primary infection...
...Fighting HIV/AIDS in Africa
Reconciling Modern Medicine with Traditional Beliefs in Swaziland.
It may be a difficult mission to get anthropologists and medical professionals to sit down and discuss human studies from a holistic perspective simultaneously. Especially on issues like HIV and AIDS in Africa, but that does not mean that anthropologists do not have any valuable knowledge to contribute to the biological results and research of the viruses. Despite the fact that most of the public health scientists work goes unnoticed, it has contributed to the understanding and the enrichment of the HIV/AIDS studies. The sociocultural explanation of the spread of HIV and AIDS viruses in Africa can be determined and studied through the differences between non-conventional traditional healing, and modern day medical studies.
The lack of proper medical awareness within the cultural values throughout many regions of Africa has cause an epidemic of severe diseases. The spread of viruses and infections remain untreated and spread widely in many developed African communities. In her study, Betty Ragsdale-Hearns, states that:
Reconciling Modern Medicine with Traditional Beliefs in Swaziland.
It may be a difficult mission to get anthropologists and medical professionals to sit down and discuss human studies from a holistic perspective simultaneously. Especially on issues like HIV and AIDS in Africa, but that...
...The history of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria
The first two HIV cases in Nigeria were identified in 1985 and were reported at an international AIDS conference in 19866. In 1987 the Nigerian health sector established the National AIDS Advisory Committee, which was shortly followed by the establishment of the National Expert Advisory Committee on AIDS (NEACA).
At first the Nigerian government was slow to respond to the increasing rates of HIV transmission7 and it was only in 1991 that the Federal Ministry of Health made their first attempt to assess the Nigerian HIV/AIDS situation. The results showed that around 1.8 percent of the population of Nigeria were infected with HIV. Subsequent surveillance reports revealed that during the 1990s the HIV prevalence rose from 3.8% in 1993 to 4.5% in 19988.
A poster encouraging sexual abstinence in Nigeria
When Olusegun Obasanjo became the president of Nigeria in 1999, HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care became one of the government’s primary concerns. The President’s Committee on AIDS and the National Action Committee on AIDS (NACA) were created, and in 2001, the government set up a three-year HIV/AIDS Emergency Action Plan (HEAP). In the same year, Obasanjo hosted the Organisation of African Unity’s first African Summit on HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Other Related Infectious Diseases9.
HIV/AIDS in Haiti
HIV/AIDS is spreading rapidly through Haiti, they have the highest cases, and due to poverty they will continue to be on the large scale. This is one of the Global Social problems brought up in Poto Mitan. According to the dictionary.com AIDS is defined as “a disease of the immune system characterized by increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, as pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and, to certain cancers, as Kaposi's sarcoma,and to neurological disorders: caused by a retrovirus and transmitted chiefly through blood or blood products that enter the body's bloodstream, especially by sexual contact or contaminated hypodermic needles.” They define HIV as ”human immunodeficiency virus; the cause of AIDS. Two strains have been identified: HIV-1 and HIV-2.”
People living in poverty suffer from these killer diseases. This social problem correlates with violence, poverty, and inequality. They are not able to receive proper care because they can not afford it. They can not afford health care because it is not easy getting a job. Haitian people are living in poverty.This forbids them from getting an education about sex and how to prevent these horrifying diseases. It brings upon violence women are being victims of rape, along with it they are given AIDS/HIV. Haitians living in poverty have a hard time finding a job. This is a huge barrier as to why they are suffering...
What is HIV/AIDS?
HIV stands for Human immunodeficiency Virus. This virus weakens a person's ability to fight infections. During HIV infection, the virus attacks and destroys the infection-fighting CD4 cells, a type white blood cell. The loss of CD4 cells makes it difficult to fight infections, and so, one would be most susceptible to any and every illness. A person with the loss of 200 and more CD4 cells is said to have the more advanced stage of the HIV infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS. This is the stage at which all of a person’s ability to fight infections is lost.
Having HIV does not always mean that you have AIDS. It can take many years for people with the virus to develop AIDS. HIV and AIDS cannot be cured. However, with the medications available today, it is possible to have a normal lifespan with little or minimal interruption in quality of life.
How is HIV transmitted?
HIV is transmitted (spread) through the blood, semen, genital fluids, or breast milk of a person infected with the virus. The virus can enter the blood through linings in the mouth, anus, or sex organs (the penis and vagina), or through broken skin.
Anyone can get HIV if they engage in certain activities.
Common ways people get HIV
Have unprotected sex. This means vaginal or anal intercourse without a condom or...
...Essay on The Prevention of AIDS and HIV
AIDS prevention programs take two primary tacks: biomedical intervention and behavioral modification. Recommended biomedical interventions include securing the safety of blood and blood products, usually through the screening of donors; treating other sexually transmitted diseases that may increase the risk of HIV infection; and treating HIV-infected pregnant women with ARVs to reduce the risk of transmission to their children. A number of researchers are working to develop an AIDS vaccine, though that task is complicated by the rapid mutation of the virus and appears to be a number of years off. Another possible biomedical intervention would be the development of a microbicide--an agent capable of killing bacteria and viruses--that could be applied vaginally before sexual activity. Microbicides might have an advantage over condoms because they would allow women to assert greater control over their sexual safety, but their development has been given relatively little attention.
Behavioral intervention is used to modify the behaviors and practices of people to reduce the likelihood of transmission. Most behavioral interventions follow the ABC model: abstain, be faithful, use condoms. Prevention programs thus encourage people to wait longer to become sexually active, have fewer partners, and use condoms if they have multiple partners. The success of those programs has been highly...
...of what may be the most devastating epidemic in human history: HIV/AIDS. The HIV/AIDS Pandemic is a large-scale epidemic affecting more than one country. AIDS was first clinically diagnosed in the early 1980s but retrospective diagnosis suggests it existed well before this date. AIDS is a syndrome, which develops from an impaired ability to fight diseases. It undermines the body’s defenses against viruses, infections and malignancies. Here, we describe the origins and evolution of these viruses, and the circumstances that led to the AIDS pandemic.
Since scientists identified the HIV as the cause of AIDS in 1983, it has spread insistently, causing one of the most harmful pandemics ever recorded in human history. However, concerted global efforts to fight the pandemic are making a significant difference. More than nine million people living with HIV in low and middle-income countries now have access to life-saving antiretroviral treatments.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) invades the body through the exchange of certain body fluids. The virus invades cells such as T helper cells and begins to replicate itself in the human body. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) of humans is caused by two lentiviruses, “HIV-1 and HIV-2; HIV-1 accounts for the majority of infections in the world, and has at least 10...
...Stigma of HIV/AIDS
It goes without saying that HIV and AIDS are as much about social phenomena as they are about biological and medical concerns. From the moment scientists identified HIV and AIDS, social responses of fear, denial, stigma, and discrimination have accompanied the epidemic. Discrimination has spread rapidly, fuelling anxiety and prejudice against the groups most commonly affected, as well as those living with HIV or AIDS. One of the main reasons for this is the lack of education and misconceptions that have developed about the disease. Some individuals affected (or believed to be affected) by HIV have even been rejected by their families, their loved ones, and their communities. This rejection holds as true in the rich countries of the global North as it does in the poorer countries of the global South. At the same time, the global epidemic of HIV/AIDS has shown itself capable of triggering responses of compassion, support, and awareness, bringing out the best in people, their families and communities. Therefore, while HIV/AIDS is often perceived and interpreted negatively in all levels of society, which has resulted in many misconceptions, efforts are continually being made to counteract such views and the disease itself.
Stigma is a powerful tool of social control. Stigma can be used to marginalize, exclude and exercise power over individuals who show...