History and Context of Graduate Education
LSTD 5003 – 200
University of Oklahoma
As we begin our graduate degrees, I believe it is very important for us to understand how and where the tradition originated. The foundation of the American higher education system is derived from the original ideology of European education. Two Greek pioneers of tutelage, Plato and Aristotle, established the Academy in 387 BC and the Lyceum in 335 BC, respectively (University of Oklahoma, 2015). Over the next few centuries there were significant developments in Palestine, Babylonia, India, China, and Egypt. Jewish, Buddhist, and Islamic religions each had their own educational institutions founded during this time, and were equally important in the expansion of graduate studies. The development of universities in Western Europe began when groups of students flocked from their home countries to various locations to witness instructors lecture about specific topics. Numerous universities were established in Europe during the 12th century. England, Germany, Bohemia, and Poland each had the inauguration of their first university. The primary model for European institutions originated from the basis of the University of Paris, which became the central establishment for the studies of philosophy and theology (University of Oklahoma, 2015). In Italy the University of Bologna became known for the study of law and the University of Salerno became renowned for the study of medicine. Future universities in Italy and Spain modeled their institutions after the University of Bologna (University of Oklahoma, 2015). In general, medieval universities were comprised of males only; no females were granted admission. Medieval institutions offered trivium and quadrivium curricula, setting a precedence for modern liberal arts education. The Renaissance introduced the idea of humanism in education. Scholars were more interested in what literature said about life on Earth rather than what was mentioned about religion. This, however, changed after the Protestant Reformation. During the 16th century religious doctrines were the focal points of academics. The Catholic and Protestant churches began to take over educational institutions, having courses emphasize the study of theology as well as training priests, ministers, lawyers, and physicians (University of Oklahoma, 2015). With the settlement of North America came new colleges and universities, accompanied by concepts from European scholarship. Each group of colonists established its own institutions that reflected those of its home country as well its idea of basic educational goals. The British used Oxford and Cambridge as models, French Catholics founded College de Jesuites as the first college in Canada, and Puritans established Harvard, which focused on ministry studies (University of Oklahoma, 2015). Scottish influences included the idea of math and science as focal studies rather than liberal arts. An American student named Benjamin Rush helped start the College of Philadelphia after studying medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland. Other colleges and universities established during this time included the College of William and Mary, Yale, Princeton, and King’s College (now Columbia University). After the Treaty of Paris in 1783 made the independence of the United States official, state colleges began to emerge. Schools including the University of Georgia, the University of North Carolina, the University of Tennessee, and the University of South Carolina were established. Founding Father Thomas Jefferson disagreed with the way higher education was being run and believed that institutions should not be controlled by churches. Rather, they should be publically controlled and secular. Jefferson founded the University of Virginia in 1819 (University of Oklahoma, 2015). Modern and scientific studies were incorporated into the curriculum, but traditional and...
History of Special Education Law
Michelle L. Johnson
Grand Canyon University: SPE- 355
June 15, 2014
History of Special Education Law
From the beginning of time until the end of time, there will always be students who require special education services. Throughout the 20th century, there have been many laws written to try and protect and help students with disabilities. Two in particular are theEducation for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA 1990). Special education classes were available in the 1950’s, but the outcome for the students was not what parents expected. The students in these classes could not preform academically, and were considered unteachable. They eventually were sent to special schools that focused on teaching them manual skills. The programs may have been available, but clearly it was discrimination towards those students with disabilities. This is why the laws written for the handicapped are so important, especially in the school system. The chart above compares two articles covering individuals with disabilities; one is an overview of disabilities, covering the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, also known as Public Law 94-142, and the other is an overview of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Amendments of...
...or underage drinking for my research topics.
•Describe methods that may be helpful in identifying and narrowing your research paper topic.
For the topic Obesity I will start out by defining what it is what cause and how to prevent it. For the topic smoking I would tell what smoking can do to you and why it’s not good. For the topic underage drinking I would tell why it’s not good to drink and the risks. Then I will tell my personal thoughts on obesity, smoking, and underage drinking.
•Examine two scholarly sources that may prove valuable as you seek to defend your claims.
Vasan, R.S.,Pencina (2005) Estimated Risks for Developing Obesity in the Famingham Heart Study Retrieved from:Ashford Online Library http://search.proquest.com
DAVIES, M.(2004). Smoking. In Encyclopedia of women's health. Retrieved from http://search.credoreference.com.proxy-library.ashford.edu/content/entry/sprwh/smoking/0
•Address why scholarly sources should be used to support your writing on the selected topic.
The authority and credibility evident in scholarly sources will contribute a great deal to the overall quality of your papers. Use of scholarly sources is an expected attribute of academic course work.
Technology has its pros and cons like anything else in life.
It has caused people to talk less I believe. People text on their phones non stop, no matter where they are or who they are with. My own friends do it, and I really think it is pretty rude. I am no angel to using my...
...Paper - I
1. Sources: Archaeological sources:Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.
2. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).
3. Indus Valley Civilization: Origin, date, extent, characteristics, decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.
4. Megalithic Cultures: Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.
5. Aryans and Vedic Period: Expansions of Aryans in India. Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.
6. Period of Mahajanapadas: Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddhism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Macedonian invasions and their impact.
7. Mauryan Empire: Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka;...
...CHAPTER 3: SETTLING THE NORTHERN COLONIES: 1619—1700
The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism
Know: John Calvin, Conversion Experience, Visible Saints, Church of England, Puritans, and Separatists.
26. How did John Calvin's teachings result in some Englishmen wanting to leave England?
The Protestant Reformation was led by Henry VIII, who became the head of the Church of England. Unfortunately, Henry had no interest in making great strides in religion. On the other hand, puritans who adopted many of Calvin's teachings saw that great religious zeal was needed, and so they decided to separate from the stiff Church of England to the Americas.
The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth
Know: Mayflower, Myles Standish, Mayflower Compact, Plymouth, William Bradford
27. Explain the factors that contributed to the success of the Plymouth colony.
The Plymouth colony was successful. The people cultivated great harvests and had firm economic foundations in fur, fish, and timber. Capable leaders such as William Bradford also helped to keep order within the colonies. The Puritans large and mutual devotion to God provided for a tight-knit unity.
The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth
Know: Puritans, Charles I, Massachusetts Bay Colony, Great Migration, John Winthrop
28. Why did the Puritans come to America?
The Puritans were outraged with the Church of England's union in the church pews between the "saints" and the "damned." Many of these Puritans went...
Higher Education Internationally: Italy
ED 678: The Foundations of Higher Education
The groundwork for higher education in Italy was set back in the Middle Ages, similar to other Western European countries of the period. Clusters of students and scholars originally formed the traditional university in Italy. Collectively they founded the first “universitates studiorum ” in major cities such as Bologna and Paris. However Bologna is thought to be the oldest living institution established in the eleventh century. (MIUR, n.d.)
The University of Bologna claims that the organization of higher education in Italy began when the masters of Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic devoted their studies to the law. Many years later after a complete analysis of historical evidence, nineteenth century historians surmised that the University of Bologna was formed in 1088. (Our History, n.d.)
From its inception, “universitates” were open to scholars and students of any nationality. The clergy and the monarchy instituted additional “universities studiorum” as the design of the university began to develop and higher education in general became more of an established, well respected focus within society. A prime example is The Università degli studi di Napoli Federico II, which was founded in 1224 by Frederick II of Sweden and King of Naples. (MIUR, n.d.) The...
...The History and Philosophy of Nurse Education
Each educator brings to the academic arena their own personal nursing philosophy that is based on experience and is historic in nature. By studying the history of nursing, the educator is able to guide the student through their education process. As an educator the nurse becomes an extension of one’s own personal philosophy. Nursing theory serves as the foundation on which to develop a personal philosophy and characterizes nursing as a profession based on the art of caring and science. In 1907, Adelaide Nutting and Lavinia Dock wrote in the preface to their book on the history of nursing:
"the modern nurse, keenly interested as she is in the present and future of
her profession, knows little of its past. She loses both the inspiration which
arises from cherished tradition, and the perspective which shows the relation
of one progressive movement to others. Only in the light of history can she
see how closely her own calling is linked with the general conditions of
education and liberty that obtain - as they rise, she rises, and as they sink, she
falls." (Michaels, D. 2012).
The History and Philosophy of Nurse Education
Key Points of Nursing Education
From the 1860s nurse training was undertaken in hospitals, which was mainly...
...In the decades that made up the fifties, sixties, and seventies numerous events that would paint the canvas of American education took place. Equality was an idea that some thought we would never see. Civil rights leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. saw this idea of equity as an obtainable dream that was in the hearts of all Americans. Though desegregation and the fair treatment of African Americans was at the forefront of the civil rights movement, there were several issues that would be brought to the attention of law makers, federal judges, and the education system. Such issues included segregation, bilingual students, and special needs education.
In 1954, Chief Justice Earl Warren delivered the opinion of the court in one of the most influential cases to ever be presented on the floor of the Supreme Court:
"?it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms." 1
This ruling, made in the case of Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka, KS, effectively overturned a decision made in the 1896 Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson. For nearly sixty years, it had been considered constitutionally justified to segregate the public education system. The opinion delivered by Chief...
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