HIGHER EDUCATION IN SOUTH AFRICA
A Report of Higher Education of South Africa
Nazir Carrim and Gerald Wangenge-Ouma
Higher Education Access for all
LIST OF ACRONYMS
ABET ACU AsgiSA AU BC CEPT CHET CHSS CPUT CRSP DAAD DBE DFID DHET DoE DoL DPSA EduSA EMS EPA EU EXCO FET FIFA FP7 FTE GENFETQA HE HED HEI HEMIS HRD-SA HSRC ICT iNCUDISA JIPSA MDG MoE MoHET Adult Basic Education and Training Association of Commonwealth Universities Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative of South Africa African Union British Council Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology Centre of Higher Education and Training Charter for the Humanities and Social Sciences Cape Peninsula University of Technology Collaborative Research Support Programme German Academic Exchange Service Department of Basic Education Department for International Development Department of Higher Education and Training Department of Education Department of Labour Department of Public Services and Administration Education South Africa Extra-mural Studies Educational Partnerships in Africa European Union Executive Committee Further Education and Training Federation of International Football Associations Framework Programme 7 Full-time Equivalent General and Further Education and Training Qualifications Authority Higher Education Higher Education for Development Higher Education Institution Higher Education Management Information Systems Human Resource Development Strategy for South Africa Human Sciences Research Council Information Communications Technology Institute for Intercultural and Diversity Studies of Southern Africa Joint Initiative for Priority Skills Acquisition Millennium Development Goals Ministry of Education Ministry of Higher Education and Training MPH NCHE NDoE NEET NMMU NOMA NORAD NPC NQF NSFAS NUFU NUL ODL PERC PHEA PIRLS PR QC SA SACMEQ SADC SANTED SAQA SARCHI SETAs SKA SMME TELP TIMMS UCT UJ UK UKZN UN USA USAID USB-Ed Ltd WISER WITS Masters in Public Health National Commission on Higher Education National Department of Education Not Employed and Not in Education and Training Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Norad’s Programme for Master Studies Norwegian Aid Agency National Planning Commission National Qualifications Framework National Student Financial Aid Scheme Norwegian Council for Higher Education National University of Lesotho Open and Distance Learning Programme for the Enhancement of Research Capacity Partnership for Higher Education in Africa Progress in International Reading Literacy Study Public Relations Quality Council South Africa Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality Southern African Development Community South Africa/Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme South African Qualifications Authority South African Research Chair Initiative Sector Education and Training Authorities Square Kilometre Array Small, Micro and Medium Enterprise Tertiary Education Linkages Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study University of Cape Town University of Johannesburg United Kingdom University of KwaZulu-Natal United Nations United States of America United States of America International Development University of Stellenbosch Business School Executive Development Limited Wits Institute for Social and Economic Research University of the Witwatersrand
Higher Education Access for all
TABLE OF CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION: HIGHER EDUCATION IN SOUTH AFRICA SECTION ONE
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 The Higher Education and Training Landscape in South Africa Transformation Globalisation Internationalisation Quality
What to do after school
Many young south Africans face the problem of deciding what to study after school. Tertiary education is a higher form of education that furthers a learners knowledge of a particular field. Tertiary education is also referred to as third stage, third level, highereducation and post-secondary education, it is the educational level following the completion of a school education (after grade 12). tertiary education includes universities, technikons, internships and institutions that specify in skills such as FET colleges. There are also other highereducation facilities such as nursing schools
There are 4 main options for highereducation in SouthAfrica
the dictionary defines university as a high-level educational institution in which students study for degrees and academic research is done. There are many universities in southAfrica, but they are often hard to be accepted into. They require students who are prepared to study long hours and and make sacrifices in return for a degree which takes a minimum of 4 years to complete
Universities are mostly revloved around theory and do not include much practical work. Universities only accept students after grade 12.
...HIGHEREDUCATION SYSTEM IN SOUTHAFRICASouth Africa’s current highereducation system is classified as: “medium knowledge producing, with low participation and high attrition rates, with insufficient capacity for adequate skills production and having a small ‘number of institutions which are in chronic crisis mode’.” (Badsha, N 2011. p4). A major concern regarding universities is the under-preparedness of students and the subsequent high dropout and graduation rates. I aim to outline and address the reasons behind students low performance rates, academic failure and their motives behind withdrawing from a tertiary institution. I will discuss a number of issues our country’s educational system has to deal with and how implementing a 4year degree program could be the best solution to save our nation from damnation.
Since 1994 our country’s main focus has been emphasized on redressing the inequalities of the past. Highereducation institutions have been restructured to follow programs, based on values of equality and democracy. Highereducation in SouthAfrica is a factor that determines the success of an individual and in the bigger picture, the nation as a whole. As a developing country, it is crucial that the South African youth acquire satisfactory qualifications and...
...factors the influence the design of C2005 currently being used in South African schools.
Influence of politics on curriculum
Influence of society on curriculum
Influence of economy on curriculum
Influence of technology on curriculum
Influence of environment on curriculum
Influence of child psychology on curriculum.
From your experience as a student and teacher, you may have noticed how politics influence education. This is whyeducation is regarded as a political activity. National ideology and philosophy have a tremendous influence on the education system because:
Politics determine and define the goals, content, learning experiences and evaluation strategies in education.
Curricular materials and their interpretation are usually heavily influenced by political considerations.
Political considerations may play a part in the hiring of personnel.
Funding of education is greatly influenced by politics.
Entry into educational institutions and the examination systems are heavily influenced by politics.
C2005 and the Revised National Curriculum Statement were two steps in the process of curriculum revision undertaken since 1994. Curriculum revision was undertaken in three mains stages or waves: the first involved the ‘cleansing’ of the curriculum of its racist and sexist elements in the immediate aftermath of the election. The second involved the...
...Education in SouthAfricaSouthAfrica has 12.3 million learners, 386,000 teachers and around 48,000 schools – including 390 special needs schools and 1,000 registered private schools. Of all the schools, are high schools (Grade 8 to 12) and the rest are primary schools (Grade 1 to 7).
School life spans 13 years - or grades - although the first year of education, grade 0 or "reception year", and the last three years, grade 10, 11 and grade 12 or "matric" are not compulsory. Many Primary schools offer grade 0, although this pre-school year may also be completed at Nursery school.
Recently, great advances have been made in the introduction of new technology to the formerly disadvantaged schools. Organizations such as Khanya, (Nguni for enlightenment) have worked to provide computer access in state schools. A recent national initiative has been the creation of "FOCUS" schools. These specialise in specific curriculum areas (Business & Commerce, Engineering, Arts & Culture) and are very similar to the UK specialist schools programme.
For university entrance, a "Matriculation Endorsement" is required, although some universities do set their own additional academic requirements. SouthAfrica has a vibrant highereducation sector, with more than a million students enrolled in the country’s universities and universities of technology....
HigherEducation, or Higher Priced Education?
The Marriam-Webster online dictionary defines highereducation as “education beyond the secondary level; especially : education provided by a college or university.“ It's no secret to modern students that a highereducation is necessary to advance in their professional life. There is always a cost to advancement and that cost can sometimes create a glass ceiling that is difficult for people in certain social strata to break through. The rising cost of highereducation and its requirement for jobs creates a conflict for people in lower economic brackets. While the social value of highereducation is difficult to argue against, the problems associated with affording highereducation are very real social problems that must be considered.
In Western society we have goals we are expected to achieve. At a very early age we begin preparing our children for school. There is no law demanding that children attend a specific school, nor that upon entering adult life they pursue highereducation. Children can be home schooled or attend any school of their parents' choosing. However, having a degree of some kind gives one many advantages in America. One who possesses...
Highereducation in the present world has a very long history. Highereducation has deep roots in the early sixth century when first monastic schools were started in Europe which later developed to the famous European university in Bologna during the period between 1088 and 1090. This is the origin of highereducation with all present systems of highereducation borrowing much from this first intuition and system of highereducation. Until early 20th century, highereducation institutions and particularly universities and high level colleges catered only for the elites in the society. Though in this time basic education was enough to secure an individual a well-paying job, the costs of securing a place in the institutions of highereducation as well as maintaining the costs for the period of a given course locked out the middle income earners as well as the poor. Statistically, by the start of 20th century, 3 per cent of the world population had enrolled in universities and other colleges offering highereducation programs. This number was much concentrated in the European continent...
...policy as an instrument of control, oppression and exploitation was one of the factors that triggered the two great political struggles that defined SouthAfrica in the twentieth century – the struggle of the Afrikaners against British imperialism and the struggle of the black community against white rule”
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, 25 November 2002, HIGHEREDUCATION ACT, 1997
The language policy has been used in the past to control, exploit and separate through the instruction of the governments, both colonial and apartheid, yet through the implementation of the controversial language policies, resistance, struggle and affirmation have occurred all in pursuit of democracy.
The British Colony was formalised in 1814 through the government of Lord Charles Sommerset and when in power, due to the poor records of the ‘old system’ of education and the country in general by the Afrikaners, they deemed them too unworthy, biased and racist to hold official positions in Government. This along with the emancipication of slaves “this practice placed the slave owner in an inferior position to his slave” (Giliomee, H & Mbenga B, 2007 pg 91) created tension between the Afrikaner ‘volk’ and the British. The desire for education in the Afrikaans community was very low. The English found that the Dutch/Afrikaner volk had “neglected education, stifled trade, supported...
...Education is the foundation, the root, the sprout from which our current and next generation will lead and engender from. Therefore, having the best educational system in the world ensures me, you and our children a fighting change, albeit pugnacious. This statement is disseminated and broadcasted as fact and the average Joe accepts it as the truth. However, this essay will point directly at the historical and political impediment existing in and on the emotion of the number one South African, me. My essay taunts the question:”As a 40 year old white Afrikaans man, where do I stand in the South African educational system?”, and does it conform to the statement to be the best in the world.
I ask the question in all honesty and respect. I am reflecting on education I attained as an Afrikaans “silver spoon in the mouth” little brat right through to my more sensible self Technical College tuition and my current B-COM studies as a self reliant adult.
Historically, my peers and I were advantaged by the system in place, much more than our counterparts in the townships and homelands. I believe that the powers ruled then had only the best intentions for the educational portfolio, albeit it was one-sided in the racial arena. The story of our lives. The institutions that were build and the standards academically set was internationally very high. I firmly believe this basis where we as the new generation sprung from, was...