Grattan Institute Report No. 2012-1, January 2012
This report was written by Andrew Norton, Grattan Institute Higher Education Program Director. Grattan Associates Julian Reichl and Ben Weidmann, and Grattan interns Peter Deutscher and ShanVerne Liew, contributed to the report’s research and production. We would like to thank the members of the Grattan Institute’s Higher Education Reference Group for their helpful comments.
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The opinions in this report are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of Grattan Institute’s founding members, affiliates, individual board members or reference group members. Any remaining errors or omissions are the responsibility of the author. This version was revised on 14 March 2012. The only significant change was to correct funding levels for maths and science in table 8 on page 50. For further information on the Institute’s programs, or to join our mailing list, please go to: http://grattan.edu.au/ This report may be cited as: Norton, A, 2012, Mapping Australian higher education, Grattan Institute, Melbourne.
All material published, or otherwise created by Grattan Institute is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
The Scanlon Foundation Lend Lease 1
Grattan Institute 2012
Mapping Australian higher education
For people new to higher education and higher education policy, the field can seem bewildering. Basic facts are surprisingly difficult to find and interpret. Funding entitlements reflect the sector’s history more than consistent policy principles. Free markets exist alongside tight government regulation. Mapping Australian higher education is the first report from the Grattan Institute’s higher education program. It puts in one place key facts and their context. ‘Higher education’ covers 39 universities, and over 100 other institutions. Higher education expenditure is $23 billion per year, almost 2% of Australia’s GDP. For such a large sector of the Australian economy, it does not always attract the policy focus and public interest that might be expected. Student numbers, both domestic and international, more than doubled over the last 20 years. Higher proportions are international, studying off-campus, and female, now 58% of the cohort. Yet broad fields of study are surprisingly stable. Student satisfaction is improving, but engagement between academics and students remains below levels achieved in other countries. The proportion of graduates getting jobs that use their higher education skills has remained constant despite the rise in student numbers. Graduate incomes are twice those of school leavers, and the rate of return on higher education investment is increasing, although graduates are not on average more satisfied with their jobs. Grattan Institute 2012 Higher education generally meets labour market demands, although shortages of health and engineering professionals have persisted over the last decade. Higher education research is growing rapidly. Increasing numbers of research-only staff helped university research publications more than double in a decade. Most research expenditure is in health, natural and physical sciences, far more than their share of students. The Commonwealth has increased its policy reach, creating a new quality regulator. But as of this year, it no longer regulates domestic undergraduate student numbers in most courses. Australia does not have a crisis in higher education. However, some policy issues are evident. Higher education policy favours producing teaching and research together. This adds costs to teaching, and it is unclear whether it adds educational benefits. Teaching-focused providers may be a good alternative for some students....
HigherEducation, or Higher Priced Education?
The Marriam-Webster online dictionary defines highereducation as “education beyond the secondary level; especially : education provided by a college or university.“ It's no secret to modern students that a highereducation is necessary to advance in their professional life. There is always a cost to advancement and that cost can sometimes create a glass ceiling that is difficult for people in certain social strata to break through. The rising cost of highereducation and its requirement for jobs creates a conflict for people in lower economic brackets. While the social value of highereducation is difficult to argue against, the problems associated with affording highereducation are very real social problems that must be considered.
In Western society we have goals we are expected to achieve. At a very early age we begin preparing our children for school. There is no law demanding that children attend a specific school, nor that upon entering adult life they pursue highereducation. Children can be home schooled or attend any school of their parents' choosing. However, having a degree of some kind gives one many advantages in America. One who possesses...
...Highereducation in Ukraine
Ukraine today is the most interesting country among the former Soviet Union republics where one can study, work and rest, get acquainted with the history of the country. Highereducation in Ukraine has always been and still preserves high quality of education. Over 18 years of independence the country has built a well-developed, competitive and ramified system of nationaleducation in European educational area.
More and more foreign students choose Ukraine for study. Annual increase of students is 10%. 40 000 foreign students gain high standard education in Ukraine. The large number of students is from China, Guinea and Turkmenistan.
The most popular professions are Medicine, Computer Engieering, Engineering specialties and Economic & Finance.
The academic year in higher educational establishments in Ukraine starts on the 1st of September. It is divided into two terms, the first term is from September to the end of January and the second begins in February and ends in June. Each term lasts 17-18 weeks, followed by a 3 week examination period.
Foreign citizens who would like to enter the higher educational establishments in Ukraine get visas at the Embassy or diplomatic representative of Ukraine in their countries on grounds of invitation from Ukrainian State Center of International...
...The High Price of HigherEducation
In America's society today, students are expected to follow the path of day care, grade school, middle school, high school and hopefully college. Growing up in America today, the importance of education is stressed starting at the earliest stages of development. In a world with a competitive job market and with citizens who want to make the most money that they can, a college education is key in success. For some students, financing college is not a problem. Money should not be a factor in the student's decision-making process when choosing what school to attend, but unfortunately many people are unable to attend the university of their choice due to the high costs. Working through college is not always the best answer because this can have a negative effect on academic performance with the added stress. It is true that financial aid and loans are available, but it is sometimes much harder to take advantage of these than people realize. Although universities offer many forms of aid in paying for college, the continually increasing prices still make it impossible for many people to afford highereducation, and lowering prices would be effective in increasing the amount of people able to obtain a college degree.
In today's society, the average income for middle class families is $49,500 (Preliminary Estimates). This is only a little more than the...
In the time I have spent in highereducation, I have noticed that educators generally encounter three categories of students. The first category, about 10 percent of the student population will always succeed because they have the attitude that failure is not an option. The second group, another 10 percent of the population, will inevitably fail, lacking the personal motivation and drive necessary to reach educational goals. Approximately 80 percent of students make up category three. A group full of bright minds that could lean toward either success or failure. This group will most significantly be impacted by changes and improvements in education. The differentiating factor in this group is that each student's response to the same question: "Is investing in my education really worth it?"
Some people are deterred from pursuing highereducation because of the price tag attached. Even though student loans are often available, the idea of repaying student loan debt, with high interest rates and low job prospects is a significant roadblock for many. For students with young families or those who have never considered post-secondary education, it is often much more appealing to take a job out of high school and immediately generate income. These are the students who begin to feel that an education is simply not...
September 20, 2012
Yvette DE La Vega
The Importance of a Good Education 1
Today more people are going back to college in order to obtain a degree of some type. More people are looking for careers and are tired of settling for jobs that they do not like just to get a paycheck. Employers are looking for employee with college degrees in order to present their customer with more qulitified people. A college degree is more importance now than it has ever been. More jobs are being sent overseas today making it harder to find a job, so in order to find a job that will give a person the financial stability they need more adult are returning to college to get their degree.
The Importance of a Good Education 2
The importance of a good education, a good education is the most important thing a person could obtain for themselves. Education is important to us in many aspects of life especially when it comes to your need for personal and social advancement. Education is important because it will open so many different...
...Case Study: Economic Crisis and HigherEducation in the United States
The 2008–2012 economic failure is considered by many economists and investors to be the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. It results in the risk of total collapse from big financial firms, the bailout of banks by national governments, and downturns in stock markets around the world. The crisis also plays a significant role in the crash of key businesses and collapse of housing market, results in the delayed unemployment. Highereducation is a large and various venture in the United States, which has impacted by the economic recession in a number of ways, but these impacts have not been the same and vary depending on state and type of institution.
Most highereducation traditions started to be concerned about their financial problems due to economic recession. Their main source of revenue has been hurt by the downturn, and that those universities would need to make hard decisions about how to spend their money. In some states, a lot of institutions are in process of fund-raising programs to avoid delaying their supported campus building projects. Many of highereducation university’s leaders have been considering and solving of two following questions: How is the economic downturn affecting institutions both public and private? What strategies are...
Highereducation in the present world has a very long history. Highereducation has deep roots in the early sixth century when first monastic schools were started in Europe which later developed to the famous European university in Bologna during the period between 1088 and 1090. This is the origin of highereducation with all present systems of highereducation borrowing much from this first intuition and system of highereducation. Until early 20th century, highereducation institutions and particularly universities and high level colleges catered only for the elites in the society. Though in this time basic education was enough to secure an individual a well-paying job, the costs of securing a place in the institutions of highereducation as well as maintaining the costs for the period of a given course locked out the middle income earners as well as the poor. Statistically, by the start of 20th century, 3 per cent of the world population had enrolled in universities and other colleges offering highereducation programs. This number was much concentrated in the European continent...
26 January 2014
The act of seeking highereducation has become more and more necessary for the average American to acquire a stable job in the work force. Likewise, the men and women applying to become collegiate students have in turn drastically increased, which reinforces the importance of highereducation in American society. As a whole, college can be analyzed through three sociological perspectives which include the structural-functional, social-conflict, and symbolic-interaction approaches. Moreover, the structural-functional approach is the best perspective that can be utilized to analyze college because every aspect is based on a purpose to change society through education.
Although the social-conflict approach to analyzing college predominately highlights the negative aspects of college, there is much to be understood from the perspective. Furthermore, the social-conflict approach produces an image of society as operating to “benefit some categories of people and harm others” (Sociology 22). To be sure, college serves as an aspect of society that benefits students who successfully graduate through the system while negatively impacting those who are not able to participate in the system or are not able to successfully graduate. Indeed, it is projected that approximately 60 percent of all job openings in America will require higher...