Higher Education Fundraising Using Public Relation Practices
The Excellence Study of public relations is studied in public relations courses throughout the United States. A variety of organizations were involved in the study including both for profit and non-profit organizations. However, there were no organizations from the higher education setting included in the study. In fact, very few studies have used the Excellence theory to examine how public relations is practiced in higher education. A true analysis of the Excellence study and how it applies to higher education is far too broad for the purpose of this presentation. Therefore, we will focus on a single aspect that is a part of every higher education institution. This study will focus on fundraising in higher education and how a fundraising group can become excellent. The core categories of the public relations Excellence theory will be discussed with an emphasis on models of public relations.
The basic mission of the higher education fundraising office, often titled University Development, is to solicit funds and support from University constituents. An article by Gary Warner titled "The Development of Public Relations Offices at American Colleges and Universities" details the origins of public relations at American Colleges and Universities. The article details that the very first college public relations effort in colonial America was actually the "begging mission" to England which was an initiative to raise funds. In 1641, preachers Hugh Peter, Thomas Weld, and William Hibbins hoped to raise funds from England for financially strapped Harvard College. The article notes, "Once in England, the preachers informed Harvard that they needed a fund-raising brochure, now a standard item in a fund drive. In response to this request came New England's First Fruits, largely written in Massachusetts but printed in London, in 1643, the first of countless billions of public relations pamphlets and brochures." Moving forward a few hundred years, public relations grew from an initial fundraising initiative to what we know it as today. In the early 1900's, two national organizations were formed for public relations and alumni relations; they were respectively, the American College Public Relations Association and the American Alumni Council. In the late 1970's the two merged into the Council for Advancement and Support of Education (CASE). Through publications, conferences, seminars, and publications, CASE has worked to advance the fields of alumni relations, public relations, and fund raising. History shows that from the early days of American colleges and universities through the present, the publics of alumni and donors are vital to their success.
Acceptance of Grunig and Hunt's definition of public relations as, "the management of communication between an organization and its public", leads us to the conclusion that the management of donor constituencies is a specialized form of public relations. From this conclusion, one may find it worthwhile to use ideas from the Excellence theory to examine how donor relations is practiced in a higher education setting. A recent study was completed looking at the Excellence theory and how it applies to public relations in higher education. The study identified four categories of excellent communication from organizations used in the original Excellence study: empowerment of the public relations function, communicator roles, integrated function and relationship with other functions, and models of public relations. Using these four categories we will formulate an Excellence theory for donor and alumni relations as a specialized form of public relations.
Empowerment of the public relations function includes the following characteristics from the original Excellence theory: involving the senior practitioners in the dominant coalition, managing communication programs strategically, and building a direct...
Is the act that outlines the various steps to be undertaken before implementing any program or events to ensure the success of a program while public interests (internal & external) are not affected.
PR Methods & Techniques
1. Publicity – refers to relationship between an organization’s publicrelations & communications manager and the editor journalist associated with both press and broadcast media.
2. Press Releases – a written report concerning a change in the organization which is sent to various media houses for inclusion in an item of news.
Statements usually highlight developments like promotions, new products, awards, prizes new contracts & customers.
Statements made are usually short in style & attractive so as to grab attention.
3. Press Conferences – usually and by organizations or individuals when a major event has occurred.
4. Interviews – usually done with the organization’s representatives, with the aim of conveying news/events
5. Events – organizations is usually have limited control here
3 Major Types of Events
Product Events – are aimed at increasing sales and at creating awareness and interest in products being provided
Corporate Events – these events are aimed at developing corporate bodies and usually generate a lot of local media coverage
- These events facilitate awareness, good will and interest
Community Events - These help and...
...worldwide economy. The public and community relations constantly face herculean challenges- both internal and external- that need to be dealt very carefully and strategically. Today, the oil industry operated differently, with the management of these companies not being solely reported to stockholders but to wider range including stockholders but also employees and the community where it operates. Consequently, the role of publicrelations has increased within this industry and this great shift in paradigm on the understanding of how the oil companies operate makes it quite vulnerable and open to crisis.
The role of the publicrelations personnel as the spokespeople of the oil companies is of paramount importance and they have a crucial duty to perform in order to be constantly alert, responsive, turning crisis into opportunities, maintain corporate governance and ensure robust community relations.
Publicrelations are a profession that is emergent- developed from the 19th century- rapidly expanding during the 20th century. Harlow (1976), gathered 472 definitions of the word PublicRelations to summarize it in one single paragraph which is as follows:
‘’ Publicrelations is a distinctive management function which helps establish and maintain mutual lines of communication and understanding,...
...PublicRelations chapter 4
Public opinion is an elusive and fragile commodity.
It can take years to build credibility and nurture trust, but only minutes to destroy it.
Individuals and companies in the public eye cannot afford to tarnish their reputations.
The best publicrelations campaign can’t
build trust when reality is destroying it.
In the 21st century, public opinion is a combustible and changing commodity.
It is difficult to move people toward a strong opinion on anything, and harder yet to move them away from an opinion once it is formed.
The heart of publicrelations work lies in influencing the public opinion process.
Most PR programs are designed to:
1. Persuade people to change their opinion.
2. Crystallize uninformed opinions.
3. Reinforce existing opinions. (support positive existing opinions)
The professional challenge….
What public opinion is
How it evolves from people’s attitudes
How it is influenced by communication
What is public opinion?
Experts have created dozens of definitions.
Publicrelations pioneer Edward Bernays called it “a term describing an ill-defined, mercurial, and changeable group of individual opinions.”
Let’s split the term in two…
A public signifies a group of people who share a common interest in a...
...the company accountable for all cleanup costs and other damage. After its own internal probe, BP admitted that it made mistakes which led to the Gulf of Mexico oil spill.
Initially BP downplayed the incident; CEO Tony Hayward called the amount of oil and dispersant "relatively tiny" in comparison with the "very big ocean." Hayward also initially stated that the environmental impact of the Gulf spill would likely be "very very modest." Later, he said that the spill was a disruption to Gulf Coast residents and himself adding, "You know, I'd like my life back." He later apologized for his statements. BP's chief operating officer Doug Suttles contradicted the underwater plume discussion noting, "It may be down to how you define what a plume is here… The oil that has been found is in very minute quantities." On 16 June BP Chairman Carl-Henric Svanberg, speaking to reporters after meeting with President Obama at the White House said, "I hear comments sometimes that large oil companies are greedy companies who don't care. But that is not the case in BP. We care about the small people."
On 30 May BP hired Anne Kolton, former head of public affairs at the U.S. Department of Energy and former spokesperson for Dick Cheney, as head of U.S. media relations. BP established a new division, headed by board member and managing director Bob Dudley to handle the company's...
There are 4 types of PublicRelations:
a) Government PublicRelations
b) Corporate PublicRelations
c) Voluntary PublicRelations
d) Consultacy PublicRelations
Select any 2 of the above and discuss the similarities and differences of PR practice. (10%)
Select 1 theory that we have discuss.
a) Discuss the theory
b) How do you think the theory is applicable in the PublicRelations practice.
The Corporate publicrelation role and objective is to support profit-making objectives either they make it directly or indirectly. By using indirectly method, it can create a good business environment to make company will continue to able to operate. The campaigns made by company must show that company is aimed at the social responsibility and not only for profit motivated.
In corporate publicrelations, they make a relations with investor by providing the information to the stakehoder and the investor about the financial achievements of company, the operation of the company and also the planning that made by the company. This is important for investor to know the detail about the company that they invested in....
...publicity is the Art of Attracting FREE public exposure making One's self visible to the public eye now this may be a newspaper article mention in a magazine on radio or television interview or item it's all free exposure none paid visibility that can illustrate a positive or negative image to the "general public".
Now I'm sure your saying to your self publicity sounds a lot like advertising, and you're wondering, what's the difference between Advertising and publicity? Well ladies and gentlemen advertising is the activity of attracting public attention to a product or business or "a band", as by PAID announcements in the form of print, broadcast, or electronic media such as the internet, what can Publicity do for you? To really hit the nail on the head I would say Publicity provides important visibility. An article in newspaper or a story on radio or television will attract public attention and stimulate public interest and create awareness and build creditability for the cause you're promoting, then you and your organization can profit from this most important visibility Why attract publicity? One of the main reasons P.R professionals seek publicity and not advertising the significant word here is Creditability, publicity is regarded as more credible then advertising; to attract positive publicity requires establishing a good working relationship with the media.
This is of course...
...PublicRelations Lecture Notes
PublicRelations as a Management Tool: Research and Evaluation
The four–step process includes: 1) defining the problem or opportunity, 2) planning and programming, 3) taking action and communicating, and 4) evaluating the program.
Research, Planning, Communication, and Evaluation are the four steps in the process.
Research is the systematic gathering of information to describe and understand situations and to check out assumptions about publics and publicrelations consequences. Its main purpose is to reduce uncertainty in decision-making.
Methodical, systematic research is the foundation of effective publicrelations. In fact, studies of practitioners show a strong link between doing research and being “invited to the table” when decisions are being made—becoming part of the management team.
Problem definition begins with someone making a value judgment that something is wrong, could soon be, or could be better. That subjective judgment is followed by objective, systematic research to confirm and describe in detail the problem situation.
Useful problem statements: 1) are written in present tense, 2) describe a situation in specific and measurable terms, and 3) do not imply solution or place blame. In short, they describe what was learned in the situation analysis.
Situation analysis research gives...
...Assignment No 1
Film Studies BAMS 335
Question: Explain the notion of cultural imperialism in relation to film studies.
To best answer the question within the title, it is pivotal to begin by defining the concept of cultural imperialism so as to ascertain how it differs from traditional modes of imperialism.It is equally important to understand how cultural imperialism is a logical by product of the long and varied history of the west’s relationship with the rest of the world and how this, in turn, affects the global perception of western media within non‑western audiences. It is also of paramount importance to delineate film in the context of cultural imperialism by looking at films such as Jit, Sarafina, Neria, The Gods must be crazy, Slumdog Millionaire, Titanic among others. We then need to look at the most important concept in the study of cultural imperialism, the advent of globalisation as an economic and political reality. And finally we likewise need to define and examine the influence and limits of western media to discern its relative power within the broader pattern of westernisation which has been discernible across the globe.
Herbert Schiller defined the cultural imperialism phenomenon as the way in which major multinational corporations, including the media, of developed countries dominate developing countries. This imbalanced, one-way flow of the cultural trade has fuelled culturalerosion in virtually every corner of the globe. In other...