Group decision making can be very helpful in getting different thoughts and opinions out of discussion, but also can be dangerous because of groupthink. Groupthink occurs when people avoid individually testing, analyzing, and evaluating facts in order to avoid upsetting the consensus of a group. In effect a conflict occurs whereby some topics are okay to discuss while others are closed often without the group being consciously aware of it. Those who violate the unspoken rules often find themselves being ostracized, alienated and ultimately expelled from the group. 9/11 is a good example of groupthink.
Rejection of expert opinion is a classic symptom of groupthink. About a week before Bush’s inauguration, then chief intelligence expert, George Tenet, told Bush, Cheney and Rice claimed that bin Laden was one of the three top threats facing the U.S. Shortly after the inauguration, Richard Clarke, al-Qaeda expert, briefed Rice on the urgent need to act against al-Qaeda, and requested an early meeting with the National Security Council to review the threat. He wrote “Either al-Qaeda is a threat worth acting against or it is not. CIA leadership has to decide which it is and cease these bipolar mood swings.” His “destroy al-Qaeda” plan was ready for action. Unfortunately, Rice downgraded Clarke’s position and the NSC meeting was delayed. CIA informed that Laden is interested in using commercial pilots as terrorists. Federal aviation administration issued a bulletin to airlines warning of possible hijacking plot by Islamic terrorists. There was threaten to all the government agencies warning “High probability of imminent spectacular terrorist attack by al-Qaeda”. Major warning was directly given to the president with the headline “Bin Laden determined to strike in US.” But no action was taken Richard Clarke asked to get reassigned and Bush finally approved Clarke’s nine-month-old plan on Oct. 25, too late to avert 9/11. Only 10...
...The attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001 were the direct result of the failure of US agencies, ranging from the White House to airport security, to recognize vulnerabilities present in the various symptoms. The reason why these vulnerabilities were not acknowledged and repaired is that these various agencies were trapped in a cognitive dissonance cycle of thinking. After the Cold War, terrorism was seen as a regional problem (9/11 Commission, 92). The majority of terrorist groups were either groups sponsored by governments or militants trying to create governments (i.e. Palestine Liberation Organization). As a result, the tactics used for fighting terrorism were centralized mostly in the Middle East and were restricted to task forces and field training by the US. The US ground forces were almost never used and, when used, were limited to small task force type missions. Furthermore, a majority of terrorist incidents prior to 9/11 usually ended in negotiations (9/11 Commission, 94). Because the government felt that it had a strong understanding of how terrorist situations occurred in the post cold war period, warning signs on the eve on 9/11 were ignored. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) had a similar point of view in regards to security. The system they had in place by 9/11 was seemingly...
...9-119-11 is a day that we will never forget. On that day the twin towers got bomb barded into by two planes. They came crashing down and killing over 2,000 people that were working or anywhere near the twin towers at the time of impact.
The culture of Al Qaeda: Al Qaeda has a very unique culture because they are very strict in their society also their qualities of living are very low. Men are valued a lot more than women are valued, it is a men dominated culture.
The culture of US: In the US we have much more freedom and women have equal rights as men. We have the opportunity to do whatever we like to do with our lives. In our culture we can choose the religion that we would like to worship.
The attacks on 9-11 were clearly not an accident. The people responsible for the attack were Islamic terrorist who worked for Al-Qaeda. Osama bin Laden was the head founder of the international alliance of terrorist. Al-Qaeda attacked many other countries but the attack on September 11, 2001 was the most horrendous attack on American grounds by far.
One of the reasons Al-Qaeda set their sights on the US was because of the U.S foreign policy in the Middle East. The Arabic countries did not like that the U.S supported Israel and did not like the U.S foreign policies because they did not think that it was equal. A second reason that I came to conclude was that...
9-11 Research Paper
By: William Culverwell
Teacher: Ms. McHenry
On Tuesday, September 11, 2001, the biggest terror attack in the history of the United States of America took place. The attacks killed almost 3,000 people and caused at least $10 billion worth of damage to the property and buildings! It was completely unexpected and was a devastating incident to the United States as a nation. It destroyed the twin towers, as well as damaging the pentagon, and a failed attack against the white house. The attack was caused by nineteen hijackers, on four different planes, three of which hit their targets. It was a tragic day in American history.
The attack was planned and carried out by the Al-Qaeda terror group. Initially the group denied involvement, but then as time went on they admitted to having been behind the attacks. Some of the reasons the listed for the attacks were: Us support of Israel, because of attacks against Muslims in Russia, Somalia, and the Middle East, and against the US troops in Saudi Arabia, and the US sanctions against Iraq. This led to one of the largest manhunts in the world, for Al-Qaeda’s leader, Osama Bin Laden. The manhunt lasted for ten years before he was caught and killed.
This was an attack that would change the United States forever. It created a reason for the security and anti-terror measures that we have today. It is the reason why planes are so heavily guarded,...
The Impact of 9-11
On September 11, 2001 America woke up expecting a normal day. What America did not expect was that this day was going to change history forever. On that day Islamic extremist high-jacked four U.S. airplanes with the intent of crashing them into the twin towers, the Pentagon and the White House. Two of the planes did indeed crash into the twin towers in New York City and another was used to hit the pentagon. The passengers on the last plane however, fought back, and it was landed before it could be used to hit the white house. “A decade later, what happened on Sept. 11 still resonates for much of the country. Even more Americans now say the horror of that day changed their lives.”1 These were the first attacks ever directed toward U.S. civilian population. These organized attacks lead to the need for an immediate change in the way the United States approached defending itself.
One of the major changes that were caused by the attack of 9/11 was the introduction to the Patriot Act. “The USA PATRIOT Act is an Act of Congress that was signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001. The title of the act is a ten-letter acronym (USA PATRIOT) that stands for Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001The Patriot Act gives the U.S. power to deter and punish terrorist acts...
...United We Stand
Although people say, “every picture tells a story,” a picture cannot exemplify every detail about the event involved in that event. The attack on September, 11 2001 was a turning point in American history. There are many visual representations and written testimonies that lead us to have different feelings about the attack on September 11, 2001; more specifically, the reason behind these different emotions is because there is a vast difference in a testimony of the event, and simply a photo of the attack. It does not matter whether you were involved in the terrifying act or if you simply heard about it on the television; this attack changed everyone’s life. “It affected us, it affects all of us, even if you don’t realize it. I just want everyone to remember that although it’s been 10 years, we still remember it like it was yesterday, and we shouldn’t forget.” (2011)
One of the most famous pictures (2001) from 9/11, photo of three firemen raising the American flag at the site of the World Trade Center attacks. After seeing the image of three firefighters hanging the American flag only eight hours after the tragic attack we were able to see the true patriotism of our country. Many people may have believed that this was a representation that the tragedy was over, but it was only just beginning. This flag was raised to give citizens proof that through all that was going to come; our flag would still...
Selling of American Empire
"The people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the peacemakers for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same in any country." Hermann Goering
It was with disbelief and shock that people around the world saw footage of the terrorist attacks in the US on September 11, 2001 when the planes-turned-missiles slammed into the World Trade Center towers and damaged the Pentagon. The horrific terrorist attacks led to a mixture of political, social and economic reaction around the world. Hatred and anti-Islam sentiment increased, even though most of the Muslim communities around the world condemned this act.
There was no question that there was going to be some response from the United States. It was obvious that they wanted to take revenge. However, the fear was in what form this revenge would be and how it would be carried out as well as what the impact on ordinary Afghans would be, who have already suffered at the hands of the Taliban and outside forces for years. The events of 9/11 resulted in the US declaring a “war on terror” on September 17, 2002.
In response to that Michael Moore, a controversial filmmaker, has made Fahrenheit 9/11, a kind of attack on Bush and his administration for their...
...Pennsylvania after passengers fought back against the terrorists to try and regain control of the plane. This is the story the government wanted its people to believe. However, the truths about the attacks on 9/11 are much more frightening.
First, at 8:46 a.m., American Airlines Flight 11 crashed into the World Trade Center’s North Tower in New York City, between floors 93 and 99 going 466 mph. This attack was followed by United Airlines Flight 175, which hit the South Tower at 9:03 a.m. between floors 77 and 85 going 590 mph. Firefighters were dispersed immediately and went inside to try and control the fires. Now why would these firefighters risk their lives and climb up numerous flights of stairs to try and control the fires? Because they knew that these steel buildings were strong and sturdy (Palisner). Never in history has a steel-framed skyscrapers collapsed from fire, since they are built from steel that does not melt below 2750 degrees Fahrenheit. The official story by the 9/11 Commission Report stated that fire weakened the towers which causes them to collapse. Jet fuel burned so hot that it melted the steel columns supporting the towers. Jet fuel, which is just refined kerosene, will burn no hotter than 1500 degrees Fahrenheit (One Nation America Remembers September 11, 2001).
Next, the towers collapsed. If the jet fuel did weaken the structure of the towers then...
...September 11, 2001 our country was struck by a series of devastating, and remember able terrorist attacks. Many remember seeing devastating images and video, of some of our beloved country’s most prized landmarks being destroyed and crashed into by hijacked commercial airlines. Osama Bin Laden and Al Qaeda took away lives, security, and pride from our country that day, and things have never been the same since. This brings up a very controversial issue that has been addressed by a college student named Dylan Avery and a few of his friends who created a movie called “loose change” which addressed many 9/11 conspiracies. Three of the main conspiracies addressed are, the US Air Force was ordered to “stand down” on 9/11, or allow these attacks to happen, the impact of the plains could not have been enough to knock down both 110 story towers so explosives must have been detonated in the buildings at the same time of the impacts, and finally the use of “squibs” or controlled explosives, suggesting that the damage caused by the planes wasn’t all that caused the towers to collapse. There are no 9/11 conspiracies that can’t and haven’t already been debunked. Some believe that these attacks were thought out, and planned by our government in accordance with Osama Bin Laden and his group of terrorists know as Al Qaeda. On the other hand there are the “debunkers,” people who have...