Islam- Assignment #4
1. Outline the main achievements of the Islamic world in the following fields: I. Philosophy
A. The Islamic world was most responsible for the preservation and spreading of philosophical achievements of ancient civilizations 1. Key ancient Greek philosophical words were translated into Arabic and stored in a “house of wisdom in Baghdad” 2. Through the Spanish Muslim philosopher, Ibn Rushd, many of these works eventually became known in Europe and influenced Christian thought II. Mathematics
A. Textbooks on mathematics and linguistics (scientific study of languages) were brought from India 1.Introduction of paper from China helped stimulate this process B. Islamic civilizations also made some advancements on their own 1.Created algebra, trigonometry
2.Adopted and passed on the numerical system of India (use of zero) III. Science
A. Muslims constructed an observatory in Baghdad
1.Knew the earth was round
2.Created a world map
B. New discoveries in optics and chemistry
C. Developed medicine as a distinctive field of scientific inquiry 1.Help of anatomy texts made by thee Greek physician Galen (180-200) D. Aware of the dangers of disease
1.Ibn Sina “Avicenna” (980-1037) compiled a medical encyclopedia that talked about the contagious nature of disease and how they could be spread by filthy water IV. Literature
A. Arabic poetry was well established by the time of Muhammad 1.Worshipped Bedouin tribal life, courage in battle, hunting, sports, and respect for the animals of the desert ((camel)) 2.Originally passed on by memory and later compiled in anthologies B. Pre-Muslim Persia had a long literary tradition
1.Rabe’a of Qozdar was Persia’s first known woman poet. a. Described the suffering love brings 2. Sadi “Persian Shakespeare” (1210-1292) is the favorite author in Iran and master of pithy maxim (forcefully expressive truth) a.Rose Garden is a collection of entertaining stories written in prose with a little bit of verse b.sonnetlike poems
C. The most famous works of Middle Eastern literature were the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam and Tales from 1001 Nights. Mostly famous in the West for European readers D.Omar Khayyam
1.Combined poetry with scientific works on mathematics&astronomy and a revision of the calendar 2. Composed poems orally over wine with friends 3. Key themes: impermanence of life, impossibility of knowing God, and disbelief in an afterlife 4.Skeptiscm and minimalist simplicity
E. Arabian Nights
1. Consisted of folktales, fables, and romances of Indian and indigenous origin that interweave with the natural and supernatural 2. Told orally---later transcribed into Persian and Arabic versions 3. Extraordinary plots, sensuality, comic and tragic situations and a cast of unforgettable characters F. Some Arabic and Persian literature reflected the deep spiritual and ethical concerns of the Koran 1.Rumi embraced Sufism (mystical relationship between Allah and humans) a. Sought to reach God by the whirling dance of the dervish where he extemporized the most passionate lyrical verse G. Major contribution to historical writing bc of paper manufacturing 1.al-Mas’udi wrote about both the non-Muslim and Muslim worlds. a. Meadows of Gold was the source of much of our knowledge about the golden age of the Abbasid caliphate 2.Ibn Khaldun combined scholarship with government service. One of the first historians to attempt a philosophy of history V. Architecture
A. Islamic art remained remarkably coherent over a wide area...
...The goldenage of Islamic (and/or Muslim) art lasted from 750 to the 16th century, when ceramics, glass, metalwork, textiles, illuminated manuscripts, and woodwork flourished. Lustrous glazing was an Islamic contribution to ceramics. Islamic luster-painted ceramics were imitated by Italian potters during the Renaissance. Manuscript illumination developed into an important and greatly respected art, and portrait miniature painting flourished in Persia. Calligraphy, an essential aspect of written Arabic, developed in manuscripts and architectural decoration. This paper will examine the Islamic literature, music and philosophers.
The most well known work of fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), which was a compilation of many earlier folk tales told by the Persian Queen Scheherazade. The epic took form in the 10th century and reached its final form by the 14th century; the number and type of tales have varied from one manuscript to another. All Arabian fantasy tales were often called "Arabian Nights" when translated into English, regardless of whether they appeared in The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, in any version, and a number of tales are known in Europe as "Arabian Nights" despite existing in no Arabic manuscript (L. Sprague de Camp, pg.10).
This epic has been influential in the West since it was translated in the 18th century, first by Antoine Galland. Many imitations were...
... The GoldenAge of IslamIslam is a very intellectual country. So let us take a tour of Islam’s goldenage! We will learn about some of the literature, art, science, architecture, and medicine advances Islam went through. Let’s start.....
Art in Islam's GoldenAge included intricate floral or vine designs on pottery, textiles, paper Manus crypt’s, and even buildings. Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations. It is thus a very difficult art to define because it covers many lands and various peoples over some 1400 years; it is not art specifically of a religion, or of a time, or of a place, or of a single medium like painting. The huge field of Islamic architecture is the subject of a separate article, leaving fields as varied as calligraphy, painting, glass, ceramics, and textiles, among others.
Sciences advanced in many directions during the Islamic GoldenAge. Arabic numerals, adapted from Hindu, and the idea of zero made algebra possible. Al–Khwarizmi wrote an algebra textbook that was the standard for centuries. His birth and death years are uncertain but estimated to be about 780–850 CE. Islam and science is...
...The emergence of Islam in South Asia, West Africa, and Europe between 1000 and 1750 CE changed the way these regions developed. It affected them culturally, economically, and politically and many different ways. During this time period, Europe changed in their forms of architecture, trading, and rulers into more Islamic ways. They also saw many new inventions. However they never changed the way they practiced Catholicism. In West Africa, they improved trade and made new trading centers but stayed true to their original cultures although they blended it with Islamic cultures. In South Asia, they attempted to create a single religion for everyone, improved trade, and used new types of currency. But, they did not change the way that Islam was spread through the region throughout this time period.
In the period 1000 to 1750 CE, Europe changed economically, politically, and culturally due to the introduction of Islam. However, many things stayed the same. During this time period, the Moors, who were composed of Africans, Arab, and Iberian Muslims, conquered and ruled Spain. They created the great mosque of Cordoba in Spain which was an architectural wonder. There was also the Islamic GoldenAge which brought many new inventions to Europe which included the decimal system, advances in astronomy, advances in medicine, and algebra. Politically, the Islamic control of Spain slowly faded away during the...
...Islamic GoldenAge: an
Enlightenment through the darkness of the History
The term “GoldenAge” is derived earlier in history from Greek myths and sagas to represent a period of stability and often flourishing in the different aspects of society, politically, economically, and most important educationally. This term, however, was used to describe another period, which is the period of the ‘Abbasid Caliphate, around the 8th century, in the capital of the caliphate, the city of Baghdad. There are many reasons why this period became goldenage. This period was an era of intellectual achievements that involved both Muslim and non Muslims scholars, and covered many aspects of knowledge such as: sciences, secular sciences, and economy. Moreover, proper infrastructure and resources were provided to accommodate this revolution. Lastly, the ‘Abbasid Caliphs and elite Muslims played an important role in forming and supporting this era.
Advances were achieved in different fields. Translation movement made it possible for scholars to acquire the useful knowledge from other ancient civilizations such as Greek, Indians, and Persians. Sciences developed include math, astronomy, astrology, medicine, law, agriculture, philosophy, and literature and many of the scholars were polymaths who are skillful and have knowledge inmany aspects of science. In math for example, scholars studied greek...
...In the 8th to 13th century while the Islamic heartlands, the Abbasid Empire was declining, the Islamic world went through a period of cultural advancement and expansion. This is considered the GoldenAge of Islam because of its developments in architecture, literature, astronomy, philosophy, medicine, math and science. Not much stayed the same in the Islamic world, however it was evident that they had still remained a dominant religion and were ahead of the world in mathematics and science. The Muslims expanded their empire mostly through military conquest. In terms of change the biggest was the fall of the second caliphate of the Muslim empire.
The Abbasid empires began to decline slowly between the 9th and 13th century. This was mostly because of revolts among peasants, increase in slavery, political decline, and economic strain within the empire. During this period the position of women had also worsened. Even women of higher class were now treated like second class citizens. In some cases women of lower classes were considered to have more rights because they were afforded the right to work (economic freedom) and to go out. Women of higher status did not have these rights and covered their bodies completely in order not to distract men. Although, this new “style” of dress eventually reached the lower class as well. The third caliph of this time Al Mahdi did little to improve the deteriorating empire. Instead he abandoned...
...DBQ GoldenAges Essay
Throughout history different civilizations have experienced GoldenAges. A goldenAge is signified by peace, prosperity, and technological advancements. GoldenAges have occurred in Greek, Roman, Chinese, Indian, and Byzantine civilizations. Greece under the rule of Pericles and China during the Han and Song Dynasties were important periods of history that have contributed to modern society. During the Han Dynasty, China was the most technologically advanced civilization in the world; the method of making paper out of wood pulp was invented and the basic method is still used to manufacture paper today (Doc. 4). One advancement during the Song was the development of gunpowder in the 800s. The use of gunpowder was beneficial during wars and battles. During the Han Dynasty, trade improved, as well as agriculture. The Silk Road which extended throughout China was one of the main trade routes used to ship goods in and out. Under the Hans, Confucianism became the official belief system of China. They also setup a Civil Service Exam based on Confucianism. This exam was required to enter service in the government. The Confucian system of government was used in China for most of the last 2000 years. Han artists and architects are noted for their detailed carvings in jade, wood, or ivory, and the building of elaborate temples. The also...
Like a flower in bloom, fifth century Attica is said to be the prime time of ancient civilizations. Much praise is given to the period, and it is coined to be the GoldenAge of ancient western history. It is claimed that the Athenians of this time period were very successful in many areas, being “originators of democracy…art, history, philosophy, and science.” (Discovering 54) Comparatively I support the claim for Attica’s golden status because it was the most successful city state of its time: with a democratic government, military superiority, and free philosophical thought.
The government of Attica was historically the first ever democracy, pioneering ideas of equality and power divided amongst all. In Pericles’ funeral speech, he claims the Athenian “constitution does not copy the laws of neighboring states; we are rather a pattern to others than imitators ourselves.” (Discovering 59) Attican government and laws set the bar of standards of equality that others modeled their own law systems after. The original designers of democracy were highly successful in seeing to it that equal representation existed. It is said that “the laws… afford equal justice to all in their private differences.” (Discovering 59) Some would argue that the democracy was crude because only free, landowning male citizens were allowed to vote: which was true. However one living in Attica was not confined to a...
...Throughout history, many ancient civilizations a period of prosperity called the GoldenAge. A GoldenAge is when a civilization enjoys a stable government and a strong economy. The civilization would also have cultural and intellectual achievements made throughout this period of time. Greece had many attainments that are still practiced and seen today, and that influenced other civilizations in the ancient world. The Han Dynasty also was a very technologically advanced civilization and created many revolutionary inventions that changed the way that humans live forever. Both civilizations went through their own goldenages and although they were very different civilizations, the amount of influence they had on the world was equally amazing.
The GoldenAge of Greece began after the intense conquest of the Persians during the Persian War. The Goldenage of Greece was also known as the Age of Pericles and it lasted from 460 BC to 429 BC. The reason why it was known as the Age of Pericles was because Athens was under the statesman Pericles. Pericles was extremely wise and had clever leadership, which caused the economy to grow well and the government had become more democratic. Art, philosophy, mathematics, science, and architecture also thrived during the period of time.
One achievement that was made during...