Topic: International Terrorism Is a Product of Globalization Course: Academic Reading & Writing II
Instructor: George Rueckert
Written by: Vakhobov Rustamjon; ID: 20111496
International Terrorism Is a Product of Globalization
Thesis Statement: Globalization has been mostly a positive phenomenon in past decades, but since 9/11 it has been the major factor in the expansion of international terrorism. I. Globalization is a complex process of global integrations in different aspects of life. A. Globalization is a new phase in global history
B. The burden of globalization has increased to the world 1. The first phase of globalization is transition of civilizations from nomadic to agrarian and commercial. 2. The second phase of globalization covers the Western colonization 3. The third phase is the phase of technology and internet. C. “Globalization is Americanization and its human face is Michael Jordan.” D. The United States is a unipolar superpower.
1. Globalization has caused instability in the United States 2. The separation of power will help overcome the problem of terrorism II. International terrorism is the product of globalization A. The relationship between globalization and terrorism exists. B. International terrorism develops in parallel with the globalization of technology and the internet. 1. The World Wide Web (www) is compared to the development of Al-Qaeda. 2. Al-Qaeda is the most dangerous terrorist organization. C. “The Migration of Dreams and Nightmares” is written by Jamal Nassar. 1. Terrorist organizations around the globe benefit from globalization. 2. Money laundering, drug trafficking and weapon trading are easier for terrorists when there are weaker boundaries between states. 3. The fundamentalism and extremism of Islamist terrorism expanded with the help of networking and brainwashing. 4. Third World Countries are the main camps for terrorist organizations. III. Western developed countries are the main targets for Islamist terrorists A. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 on World Trade Center had a political significance for terrorists. B. London, Madrid and Bali are other targets of terrorists.
“Terrorism is a global menace. It calls for united, global response. To defeat it, all nations must take counsel together, and act in unison. That is why we have the United Nations.” Kofi Annan, September 2001
There is no single definition for globalization because it has a very broad meaning and aspects. Some define globalizations as an integration of nations in business, culture and politics without boundaries. “Globalization is real, and we must take it seriously, but it is not easy to understand because of its complexity. Globalization is not one single thing; it is a collection of things, some tightly intertwined, some loosely connected” (Vesseth 2). It is impossible to define, but surprisingly people know it when they see it. However, the theory of globalization is a complex issue to understand; it can be analyzed if we observe it closely.
The interview conducted with Nargiz Kassenova the political science professor at Kimep University located at Almaty, Kazakhstan. She defines globalization as “Globalization is a complex process. I can give a whole list of positive, negative effects. About positive ones, well, there are more connections among people; they can connect more, information exchange. The most serious negative one is Terrorism. Yeah, crime became globalized, so basically everything is globalizing”.
Ryan M. Faught
Arkansas Tech University
Terrorism has been a major topic of research for many years. We’ve learned a lot about terrorism and terrorist groups, but there are still major questions to be answered. What exactly is a terrorist? What causes ordinary people to become terrorists? What attracts people to terrorism? How do terrorist groups in the Middle East recruit and radicalize people from all over the world? In this paper I will discuss these questions and more according to the knowledge I’ve gained from reading these five research papers.
Terrorism is the use, or threat, of action which is violent, damaging or disrupting and is intended to influence the government or intimidate the public and is for the purpose of advancing a political, religious or ideological cause (De Zulueta, 2006). This or any definition of terrorism is still subjective depending on the “terrorist” and the situation. For instance, most Americans don’t consider the founding fathers as terrorists, but freedom fighters. In the same way, radical Muslims may look at al Qaeda as freedom fighters, although most of the world would view them as terrorists. The deciding factor that separates freedom fighters from terrorists appears to be the intentional murder of innocent people. Terrorist groups, such as al Qaeda are well known for such murders. Rather than merely fighting for freedom, they wish to create a...
...Are Terrorism and Globalization Linked?
February 24, 2006
Are Terrorism and Globalization Linked?
While a precise definition of the term has yet to be established, many of the currently employed definitions use similar concepts. The University of Colorado at Boulder (2002) describes the global economy as one in which the main international players are corporations and lacking a structure tied to national boundaries. Refusing to assign a specific definition to the term, the World Bank (2000) describes it primarily as “the observation that in recent years a quickly rising share of economic activity in the world seems to be taking place between people who live in different countries,” or, more simply, an increase in international economic activities. The Center for Strategic & International Studies (2002) attempts to precisely define globalization, calling it “a process of interaction and integration among the people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology.” The International Monetary Fund (2000) offers the broadest summary of globalization, referring to it as “the increasing integration of economies around the world, particularly through trade and financial flows,” adding, “The term sometimes also refers to the movement of people (labor) and...
...Critically examine the proposition that national boundaries have been surmounted by the phenomenon of globalisation and that therefore, national governments are no longer able to promote independent economic policies.
Marxism conceived of globalization to a great extent as simply the worldwide expansion of the capitalist mode of production (Amin and Luckin 1996:225).
The global expansion of production methods and networks has resulted in a proverbial shrinking of the globe, leading analysts to argue that globalisation is constricting the capacities of states and governments to control economic policies and processes within their borders.
Baylis and Smith (1998) define globalisation as the 'intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.' In this essay, Globalisation is understood as a phenomenon, and a process that eases the movements of labour, services, capital and goods and information across the globe. It has evolved partly due to the trend of increasing international trade across national boundaries and the conduct of business activities in more than one country. Put simply, it is a process that involves the growth of inter-dependency between national markets and industries on a worldwide scale (Brooks, Weatherston and Wilkinson, 2011).
As globalisation progresses the status of national boundaries as obstacles to...
EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION
December 2, 2013
Globalization and modernization play a major role in a nation’s development. Nations such as China and Vietnam have ventured into the global economic stage in order to preserve their future . Their government’s reform laws on global manufacturing and exporting has improved their economic growth. Globalization both brings a positive and negative outcome and greatly influences the course of the nation.
In 1978 Chinas leaders reformed their economic policy in order to revitalize their stagnant economy. This had a positive effect on Chinas economic future. The reform included liberizing foreign trade and investment . This globalization event paved the way for foreign manufacturing companies to be able to operate in China. Pre 1978 life in china was plaque by poverty, famine, and income inequalities. The annual economic growth was 6 percent per year. After globalization economic growth went up to 9 % annually after 1978, and is now at an amazing 15% in the last few year( Hu & Khan, 1997). Another positive impact from globalization is the percentage of people living in poverty. As more factories were built, more jobs were created reducing the people living in poverty from 270 million during the year of 1978 to 100 million in 1985. (Wikipedia,2013)
Chinas low cost of labor has propelled the nation’s economic growth...
...Esposito’s Unholy War Book Review
Islamic expert John Esposito mainly focused on the topic of Islam and terrorism while trying to answer some questions, how to make a modern terrorist, what is the definition of Jihad, how does Islam used in the sense of terrorism, by giving historical experiences, and events as examples to enable better understanding.
John L. Esposito’s Unholy War Book includes 4 chapters; The Making of a Modern Terrorist, Jihad and the Struggle for Islam, The Armies of God, Where Do We Go from Here? The history of Islam, Western views of Islam, misunderstandings of Islam in the West, the increase of militant Islam, the alternative applications of Islam, and finally the future of Islam are the main topics that Esposito’s book covered.
In the chapter “The Making of a Modern Terrorist” Esposito mainly focused on Osama Bin Laden’s life, how he became a preeminent ideologue of Jihad International from an educated and shy person. Did his character and/or surroundings affected his terrorist attempts and September 11, 2001 tragedy, what are the reasons of this terrorist attacks? As Islamic expert, Esposito gave importance to history of the Islamic extremism because he knows that a leaders/terrorists don’t appear over night. It is a product of long history of both religious and political ideas because both past and present are joint in the Muslim world. Past is key for terrorist’s legitimization of those attacks by using the...
...Is Terrorism Ever Morally Defensible?
The term terrorism has many different definitions. The most accurate definition of terrorism is defined as the use of violence and intimidation, especially for political purposes.1 Terrorism is based on an act of violence. It kills, hurts or injures many people who are innocent for the reason of making a point or for political objectives. Most of the acts of violence caused fromterrorism is either manipulated by another person or leader or is intended to make a strong point from the act of violence. The term ethnocentrism can also influence terrorists because they may feel that their views or culture should over rule or power of everybody else. For example, the Ku Klux Klan was a terrorist group that was formed originally from six confederate Caucasian men who manipulate their group into violent acts costing lives of innocent people ("Spartacus Educational: Ku Klux Klan" 10/20/2011). The act of terrorism causes violence, deaths, conflicts or wars, devastation, mourning of the deaths of innocent people, loss for families, damage to our environment and society etc. There are not many arguments that conclude to why terrorism is understandable or justifiable in our society. The violent act of terrorism is not and will not ever be morally defensible. Terrorism evidently proves how it affects innocent...
...third plane was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense), leading to a partial collapse in its western side. The fourth plane was targeted at Washington but crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers. In total, 2,996 people died in the attacks, including the 227 civilians and 19 hijackers aboard the four planes. It was the deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively.
The United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had harbored al-Qaeda. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded law enforcement powers. Having evaded capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located and killed by U.S. forces in May 2011.
Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York, the Pentagon Memorial, and the Flight 93 National Memorial in Pennsylvania.
On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building was officially opened on November 3, 2014
2. The Moscow theater hostage crisis, also known as the 2002 Nord-Ost siege, was the seizure of the crowded Dubrovka Theater on 23 October 2002 by 40 to 50 armed Chechens who claimed allegiance to the Islamist militant separatist...
...Global TerrorismTerrorism is a big issue all around the world. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror, often violent, especially as a means of coercion. Also are violent acts which are intended to create fear, are perpetrated for a religious, political, or ideological goal and deliberately target or disregard the safety of civilians. Terrorists use murder, kidnapping, hijacking, and bombing to pursue a political agenda. Terrorists are not just subject in the United States, it happens all over the world.
Primary reason for terrorist’s actions is to force a change in their nations’ government. If terrorists are not pleased with their government political positions they may consider taking the issue into their own hands. In which can cause harm to many people. Also terrorists may cause harm because the difference in race, nationality, or religion. Major terrorist groups are the Palestinian Liberation Army, Hezbollah, and Al- Qaeda. Al- Qaeda is best known from being under leadership of Osama Bin Laden. Osama Bin Laden was behind the hijacking of the planes that flew into the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 and also the attack on the USS Cole. Many innocent lives were taken on that horrifying day, people lost their mothers, fathers, sisters, brothers, and friends. It was an emotional time for everyone and till this day it still causes pain to people’s lives that were affected by it.
The terrorist’s main objective...