(Global Politics and the Responsibility to Protect) Cristina Gabriela Badescu-Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect Security and Human Rights (Global Politics and the Responsibility to Protect
Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect
This book explores attempts to develop a more acceptable account of the principles and mechanisms associated with humanitarian intervention, which has become known as the “responsibility to protect” (R2P). Cases of genocide and mass violence have raised endless debates about the theory and practice of humanitarian intervention to save innocent lives. Since the humanitarian tragedies in Rwanda, Burundi, Bosnia, Kosovo and elsewhere, states have begun advocating a right to undertake interventions to stop mass violations of human rights from occurring. Their central concern rests with whether the UN’s current regulations on the use of force meet the challenges of the postCold War world, and in particular the demands of addressing humanitarian emergencies. International actors tend to agree that killing civilians as a necessary part of state formation is no longer acceptable, nor is standing by idly in the face of massive violations of human rights. And yet, respect for the sovereign rights of states remains central among the ordering principles of the international community. How can populations affected by egregious human rights violations be protected? How can the legal constraints on the use of force and respect for state sovereignty be reconciled with the international community’s willingness and readiness to take action in such instances? And more importantly, how can protection be offered when the Security Council, which is responsible for authorizing the use of force when threats to international peace and security occur, is paralyzed? The author addresses these issues, arguing that R2P is the best framework available at present to move the humanitarian intervention debate forward. Thisbookwillbeofinteresttostudentsofpeaceandconflictstudies,human security, international organizations, security studies and international relations in general. Cristina Gabriela Badescu teachespeaceandconflictstudiesattheUniversity of Toronto, Canada. Her research interests include international relations, human security, transitional justice, and the responsibility to protect.
Global Politics and the Responsibility to Protect Series Editors: Alex J. Bellamy Griffith University
Sara E. Davies
and Monica Serrano
The City University New York
The aim of this book series is to gather the best new thinking about the responsibilitytoprotectintoacoresetofvolumesthatprovidesadefinitiveaccountof the principle, its implementation, and role in crises, that reflects a plurality of views and regional perspectives. Global Politics and the Responsibility to Protect From words to deeds Alex J. Bellamy The Responsibility to Protect Norms, laws and international politics Ramesh Thakur Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect Security and human rights Cristina Gabriela Badescu
Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect Security and human rights Cristina Gabriela Badescu
...The Responsibility to Protect
Since the dawn of time there have been occurrences of massive violations of humanrights. The 20th century in specific brought with it not only inter-state wars but also internal conflicts. However, in the last hundred years there has also been a substantial growth in international cooperation and solidarity. Through the creation of international organizations, such as the United Nations, and the growing number of non-governmental organizations, the 20th century has seen a paradox between humanity’s will to combat war and injustice and its apparent failure to put this into action. The Responsibility to Protect is a new international concept, the gist of which is that states have a responsibility to protect not only their people, but also those whose states have failed them. The aim of this paper is to give a more defined and comprehensive view of this concept. In order to do so, it is imperative to look at how the international community has responded to massive violations of humanrights in the past, and for this end a brief description of the Rwanda genocide will be given. It will then go on to outline the history of Responsibility to Protect, focusing on its reception at the United Nations. Finally, a concise view on the crisis in Darfur will be given in...
...Whose Responsibility is the Responsibility to Protect?
The idea that national sovereignty is a responsibility not a right, is the controversial notion at the heart of the emerging international norm of 'responsibility to protect' (R2P). This notion declares that states have a responsibility to protect their populations from mass atrocities. If states are either unable or unwilling to do so then responsibility is taken up by the international community to protect the populations in danger. This essay will discuss why the United Nations (UN) bears most, but not all, of the responsibility for R2P. Specifically, when the UN fails to act to prevent genocide then responsibility transitions to the United States and regional powers. Through a collective and diverse range of responsibilities there is a better guarantee that populations in danger are ultimately protected. In relation to this argument, this essay will discuss and analyse three key components; firstly, what the 'responsibility to protect' is and what common misconceptions exist; secondly, how the UN is the best international organization to bear responsibility for R2P but how it often fails to stop genocide; and finally, how the United States and regional powers bear...
...Unit 3, Area of Study 1
* A nation is a group of people connected by a distinguishing common social feature, such as language or religion. A nation does not necessarily have a form of government or geographic borders.
Further explanation and example
* Some nations have their own state, such as China, while others, such as Tibet, form a nation through a common cultural characteristic, without having a state.
* Nations that seek statehood can often challenge the sovereignty of other states. One example of this is the Tibetan claims to independence from the People’s Republic of China.
* A state is an organized political community with a recognized territory and a form of government that possess both internal and external sovereignty A state has a permanent population, defined territory and recognized sovereignty. States are not necessarily culturally homogenous.
Further explanation and example
* An example of a sate is Australia.
* Australia does not have a culturally homogenous population, but is still a state, as recognized by the UN.
* Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have full authority and power over a geographic region, group of people or oneself. For as state to have sovereignty, the government should have full control over internal affairs and is recognised by external...
...Terrorism is the use of threat or action planned to effect the government, an government organisation or to threaten the public or a certain sector of the public. Examples of terrorism can be severe violence against a human being, severe damage to a property, a severe risk to one’s health and safety, or a serve threat to someone’s life.
International terrorism is when groups form in different countries, like AL Qaida show a threat that has never been experienced before. Al Qaida record threating videos of themselves posting them up onto the internet, sharing their plans which lead to terrifying the public and government of the country they choose to intimidate, carried out and presented by figures like Usamah Bin ladin. This can be a stressful and costly time for a country, as governments will be wanting to do anything to stop the attack from happening. For example recruiting more members of the army to help fight to keep the country safe. These terrorist groups often aim for high impact attacks which lead to high mass civilian casualties. “The threat to the United Kingdom and our interests from international terrorism is substantial”. This shows that there is a high chance for an terrorist attack happening in the United Kingdom, and can happen without any warning. Due to the United Kingdom having an effective governance, we face a less sophisticated terrorist attacks. Al Qaeda is mainly based in Afghanistan and Pakistan, with...
...FastFit Case Study, Part 2
7. a) Assuming that Fastfit goes ahead with its plans to have an e-commerce
site, identify two physical locations, from where customers can enter their
orders to the ecommerce site and b) For each of the locations that you
mentioned, identify the technologies (cover the areas of software, hardware
and networks) that a customer would need (at the location) to accomplish this
activity? (use a table)
Technologies for Home Location
Single user operating system
software, for example, Intel CPU or
Mac Power CPU. This is the
software that enables software
applications to have control over
processes running on a computer
and use hardware resources. As the
customer would presumably be the
only person needing access to this
operating system, they would
require single user capabilities.
Browser – the customer’s
computer would need to have
some kind of browser icompatible
with the OS installed on their PC.
For example, Google Chrome or
Internet Explorer. This browser
would then enable them to access
the FastFit website.
FastFit Case Study, Part 2
Personal computer of some kind.
The PC would firstly need to be
equipped with a CPU for processing
programs and information
Input & Output Hardware. It would
also need to have input hard ware,
such as a keyboard and a mouse so
that the customer could
communicate his/her needs
through the computer....
...Specification of responsibilities
General Group Description
The Executive Committee of Johnson & Johnson
Principal management group responsible for the operations of Johnson & Johnson.
Develop and funding the health and wellness programs
Line executive that report directly to the executive committees
Develop and operating the health and wellness programs, set up the goal and objectives.
Persons working for company
Get involved and participate in this health and wellness programs.
Doctors/nurses/hospitals/health care providers
Health care professional
Offer the services in this program by joint the leadership training programs, volunteering and health programs.
Health and wellness practitioners programs
Create and develop the strategy to help company achieve the objectives of these programs.
Diagnosing Organizations System
Individual Level Diagnosis was be used to diagnoses J&J workers to develop EAP program because the goal of this program to gain high performance and personal development based on their healthiness and wellness to have a good quality of life and works.
The inputs come from group designs, organizations design and also personal characteristics. J&J is the multi-national manufactures of pharmaceutical, diagnostic, therapeutic, surgical and biotechnology product as well as personal hygiene. The J&J workers have a structural tasks based on their...
...Pvt Hogue, Ryan
15, AUG 2012
There is no philosophically well-settled way of dividing or analyzing the various components of responsibility, and some components are often ignored by philosophers. To take a more comprehensive approach, this article divides the responsibility of individuals into four areas of enquiry. Recent analytic moral philosophy has tended to ask two deceptively simple questions aboutresponsibility like; “What is it to be responsible?” and “What is a person responsible for?”
The first question is usually taken as a question about moral agency, the second as a question about holding people accountable for past actions. As noted, however, this does not capture the variety of uses that we make of the concept. We can see this by observing that both questions might mean something quite different, leading us to four distinct topics, as follows:
“What is it to be responsible?” is most often asked by philosophers as a question about the foundations of moral agency. What sort of creature can properly be held responsible for its actions? The simple answer is: a normal human adult. To explain and justify this reply, philosophers tend to turn to psychological and metaphysical features of normal adults, such as free will. We might also approach the same issue with a somewhat different emphasis: What features of (normal, adult) human interaction are...
...The Student Teacher's Responsibilities:
As a new member of a professional community, student teachers assume a variety of professional obligations and responsibilities. These are well-detailed in the Student Teaching Handbook updated and distributed annually by Villanova University's Department of Education and Human Services.
As student teachers look forward to and prepare for their student teaching semester, they should fulfill the following responsibilities.
At their first opportunity, student teachers should obtain a copy of the Faculty Handbook and acquaint themselves with the procedures, rules, and regulations that apply to the faculty of the school in which they are working. Student teachers should also familiarize themselves with other official documents (e.g., calendar). It is absolutely imperative that the student teacher be acquainted with the procedure that is followed if one must be absent due to illness.
In particular, it is expected that student teachers:
comport themselves as professionals (i.e., in word, action, dress, appearance, etc.)
exhibit promptness and punctuality in meeting one's responsibilities and obligations
recognize and act congruent with their new status (i.e., they are not their students' peers)
seek advice from their cooperating educator and Villanova supervisor on a regular and routine basis
For their part, students respect teachers who are honest,...