Mass media are means of communications (as newspapers, radio, or television) that is designed to reach the mass of the people1. Besides playing the role to inform individual with news, the media together with a sound legal system and an independent judiciary is part of a triumvirate that is essential for a well-functioning democracy2. In a democratic system of government, mass media is performing a number of essential functions. First, they serve on information or surveillance function. Second, they serve an agenda-setting and interpretation function. Third, they help us to create and maintain connections with various groups in society. Fourth, they help us to socialize and to educate us. Fifth, they persuade us to buy certain items or accept certain ideas. Sixth, they entertain us. Freedom is the power or right to act, speak or think freely. We are now living a media culture and its influence is become very pervasive. The number of hours we spend on the media is mind-boggling. Although the freedom of the media should not be in toto, yet the degree of the freedom of the media will affect the function of the media. Citizens of countries that are democratic see media freedom as a right, not a privilege. Nevertheless, there is no mention of freedom of the press or freedom of the electronic media in our Constitution. However, freedom of media to exercise its role and functions in society has been enshrined as a fundamental human right by way of recognition for the right to freedom of speech, expression and opinion.3
In 1930-1940, there are nearly 80 newspaper and magazines published in the Malay State, such as Utusan Melayu, Saudara, Warta Malaya and Majlis. In Warta Malaya, it published article that talk about the social and economic problems faced by the Malay. However, it did not ask for the British to be chased out. The newspaper, Majlis, discussed the political issues. Majlis not only brings to the awakening and fights for Malays right, their office became the place for the nationalist to meet up and exchange their thoughts.
In the newspapers Saudara, there was a column named ‘Persaudaraan Sahabat Pena’ where the Malay readers exchanged their point of view. British was worried on the development of this column and therefore took the step to overseen those who involved in the said column.
In view of the number of publications that existed during the time and the situation whereby those newspapers are free to discussed any issues, and the fact that the newspapers has played a vital role in the movement towards independence, we can conclude that under the administration of British, the media was enjoying the freedom of speech.
The law on the freedom of speech became clearer during the time prior to independence. Certain law has been introduced to the Malay State. One of the laws which governed the freedom of speech at that time was the Sedition Act 1948. Section 4 of the Act makes it an offence to make, prepare, or to conspire, to do a seditions act, to utter seditious words, and to propagate or import any seditious publications. Section 3 provides that a seditious tendency is one which tends to (a) bring hatred or contempt to the government or excite disaffection against any Ruler or government, (b) excite the countrymen to revolt, (c) bring into hatred or contempt or excites disaffection against administration of justice, (d) raise discontent or disaffection among the countrymen, or (e) promote feelings of ill-will and hostility amongst the inhabitants of the country.
Besides, there were two ordinances specifically deal with the printed media at that time, i.e. Printing Press Act 1948 (Ord 12 of 1948) and Control of Imported Publications Act 1958 (Ord 14 of 1955). The former deal with the publisher in the Malay State while the later governing the printed material from other country.
Those laws were limiting freedom of speech of the media at the British colonial the light of...
...Access to information has profound consequences to our democracy. Massmedia need to be accessible to the public as a means of both transmitting and receiving information.
The massmedia, including print and broadcast media, are being concentrated in the hands of fewer and fewer corporations. They screen out information that does not fit into the "norm" and thus the media become a means of maintaining the status quo. The media have become a major vehicle for advertising and promoting corporate messages.
An informed electorate is critical to good government. Our legal right to criticize government is essential to the effective working of democracy. The U.S. Bill of Rights sets forth the rights and freedoms that cannot be denied or abridged government. The scope of the First Amendment is extensive and prohibits any law which would abridge the freedom of speech, or of the press. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is responsible for determining and advocating telecommunications policies that ensure the First Amendment rights.
The privatization of the broadcast airwaves, one of our most important taxpayer assets, has caused serious deformations of our politics and culture. The private broadcasters control what the public owns; and in return for free licenses to use taxpayer...
...Freedom Of Speech, Assembly And Association
Article 10 of the Constitution of Malaysia guarantees Malaysian citizens the right to freedom of speech, freedom of assembly and freedom of association but such freedom and rights are not absolute, unlike the First Amendment in the United States Constitution.
Subject to Clauses (2), (3) and (4), under Article10 all citizens have the right to:-
freedom of speech and expression;
assemble peaceably and without arms;
Experts such Professor Dr. Shad Saleem Faruqi have argued that the Malaysian Federal Constitution provides a rather weak provision for freedom of speech primarily as a result of amendments following the May 1969 clashes, known as the Sensitive Matters Amendment to allow Parliament to “impose on the above right, restrictions on eight grounds – public order, national security, incitement and offence, friendly relations with other states, contempt of court, contempt of Parliament, defamation, morality”.
Clause (2) expressly permits Parliament by law to impose restrictions on any citizen's freedom of speech, assembly and association in the interest of:-
a) the security of the Federation;
b) friendly relations with other countries;
c) public order;
Compare functionalism and critical theory perspectives on media and society. Which could be the most appropriate approach to understand the media role in Malaysia? Please elaborate with examples
There are many theories, approaches or model to look at the perspective of media and society in Malaysia. In order to understand media and society inMalaysia, we have to look at the meaning of Functionalism Theory and Critical Theory on massmedia and society.
Functionalism theory attempt to explain media’s role in the operation of society. By using functionalism, we can explain how media influence the society. Social Institution like family, government, media, education and others. Functionalism also inteprest how social insitution contribute to the stability of the whole society. Each of the institutions is inter-related to each others. For Example, a cell needs nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, vacuole and etc. A cell needs this entire component to function properly and maintain. Without one of the part, the cell will have trouble producing or even staying alive. So massmedia are interrelated to others. For example, government needs mainstream media to inform public about the current situation of our economy. (Crossman, A. n.d.)...
Evaluate the importance of the sustainable use of plants to Canadian society and other cultures
Answer one of the following questions, by conducting research. Your response should not be longer than 250 words and you should provide appropriate evidence (by citing credible references):
How does the local food movement contribute to community development?
How does the re-introduction of native plant species along river banks help to prevent land erosion?
What plant species are considered important in sustaining Canada’s growth in the agricultural sector?
How are plants being used to clean wastewater from fish farms so that the water can go back into local streams?
The development and uses of technology to maintain human health, are based in part, in the changing needs of society
Choose a technology (advances in dietary products, advances in fitness equipment, advances in transplant technology, advances in diagnostic equipment, etc.). Create a timeline showing how that technology has advanced over the years, based on the changing needs of society.
Genetic and genomic research can have social and environmental implications
Browse through the class blog on genetic processes and choose a post that interests you (not your own post). Reflect on the issue summarized in the post by providing your personal opinion. Support your opinion by citing credible references (at least 3). Your...
MASSMEDIA AND THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH IN KENYA
For many years human rights activists, different organizations, and trade unions of Kenya have ceaselessly fought for the basic human rights inclusion of the legislation process to become part of the law. An example of these rights that they have advocated for is freedom of speech. Freedom of speech simply refers to the democratic right of an individual to express his/her political, religious, social or economic views through oral or written speech without being restrained or fear of censorship (Rodman and George pg 70). The media have acted as a watchdog to oversee the government operations. Therefore, it has played a significant role to ensure social welfare by compelling the government to prove actions from time to time. This has formed the basis of the discussion on matters that relate to the
freedom of speech and the massmedia in the Kenyan context.
Unlike in other countries, Kenyans promulgated the new constitution in 2010 that guarantees freedom and independence of the press. The former regime government practiced censorship of the press by enacting tight laws that might prevent the act of criticizing the government or any political...
...Existence of Freedom Of Speech In Malaysia
The freedom to act and say things freely is a sacred force that hasbeen granted to Malaysians as a birth right. In Article 10 of the Malaysian Constitution it guarantees citizens freedom of speech, assembly and association. However this right is not absolute. Article 10(2) and (4) of the Federal Constitution allows Parliament to impose limits to such acts. The act of freedom of speech is not solely limited to the ability of a person using verbal efforts to voice out something but also through said persons actions and such, for an example it gives a person a right to protest about issues they are not currently happy about. This is something that cannot be underrated as every great revolution in the world started with one person who felt strongly about something and made a decision to start a movement towards it.
In Malaysia there should be reinforcement towards this act as the community and people themselves should be allowed to come together and work towards a shared purpose and goal as our forefathers had done before. On a more communal level it gives the society and people a sense of belonging that their voices are heard and that their opinion matters just as much as the people that are in power, be it a wise or foolish decision, it helps to form a collective will and...
...Whathasbeen the impact of the concentration of media ownership on media diversity?
The term ‘concentration of media ownership’ describes the apparent practice whereby gradually fewer organizations or individuals have direct control over ever-increasing shares of the massmedia among public consumers; other terms in relation to this are ‘media consolidation’ and ‘media convergence’. The concentration stems from institutions merging to secure a more stable financial status as well as greater corporate strength. ‘Hunt’ and ‘Ruben’ described the situation stating that the world had “become one large marketplace” and, as the information on investment suggests, “a few ‘players’ dominate the distribution and the production of services and the goods in the world”. Large amounts of modern research reveal the increasing amount of consolidation of the media, it also shows that there are some industries, which are already intensely concentrated and have a small number of firms whom dominate. There are a large number of considered media conglomerates who are globally dominant over much of the massmedia, for example, Viacom, Time Warner, the CBS Corporation, News Corp, The Walt Disney Company and the Sony Corporation of America, among others. According to figures, In the...
...MassMedia Audience in Malaysia
In the massmediaperspective, have two types of audience which is the passive audience and the active audience. But sometimes, they maybe act both of these types. So, in discuss this both type of the audience, I have pick up the difference theory to explained how their style can give the powerful effects to massmedia or by their attitudes make the massmedia have the limited impact on them.
Lots of theory that hasbeen discussed on passive audience, and state that people are easily influenced by the media. While active audience concept can be viewed as a theory that focuses on accessing what people do with media. This concept said that the people make more active decisions about how to use the media (Stephen W. Littlejohn and Karen A. Foss, 2008). For that reason, this concept can be referred to as audience-centered rather than source dominated. Baran and Davis (2006) suggested that this concept should be looked under micro level perspective rather than macro level perspective. These ideas of audience are associated with various theories of media effects. The powerful effects theories tend to be based on passive audience, whereas the minimal effect theories are based more on...