Flight 93 and Utilitarianism in Times of Crisis
On September 11, 2001 United Airlines flights 93 crashed in a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania. It has been theorized that the crash was a result of the passengers trying to regain control after it had been hijacked by four members of the Al Qaeda terrorist group in their attempt fly the aircraft into either the White House or the U.S. Capitol building.
With that being said, let’s change the scenario a little bit. Suppose that none of the passengers attempted to interfere with the terrorists plot to crash the plane into Washington D.C. Would it be acceptable for the government to launch military aircraft to intercept and possibly shoot down the airliner knowing that all 44 people on board would be killed? From a utilitarian mindset my answer would have to be yes.
The whole point behind utilitarianism is to find the one action which maximizes utility, meaning, producing the greatest net benefit. When all things have been considered there is only one right action. It looks at what is good for the greatest number which means that it is possible to do something that has a positive net benefit for the majority but may be very harmful to another segment of the population.
In the case of flight 93, shooting down the airliner and sacrificing 44 lives would have, in turn, save the lives of hundreds of people on the ground. Preventing the terrorists from reaching their destination would have averted the likelihood that a large number of our elected officials would have been severely injured or killed. Also, it would have prevented the potential shutdown of the U.S. Government, a shutdown that would have had negative effects felt around the world.
This brings to light an interesting question. Are we more likely to accept the idea of utilitarianism in times of crisis? Again, I would have to answer yes. People tend to gravitate toward and readily accept structure and guidance, especially in times of...
Specific Purpose- To inform my audience about fight 93 including how they hijacked the plane, people on the flight, and how they fought the hijackers.
Central Idea- On September 11, 2001, four people hijacked united airlines flight93; I am going to inform you how the plane was hijacked, who were on the flight, and how they fought the hijackers in order to save the White House.
On September 11, 2001, four people hijacked united airlines flight93, I am going to inform you how the plane was hijacked, who some of the people on the flight were, and how they fought to save the White House without even knowing. We all know about the tragedy that occurred on 9.11, but do we really know what happened on flight93. According to the movie United 93 "40 ordinary people sat down as strangers and stood up as one."
(Transition Statement): First, I will talk about how the four people hijacked the plane.
I. Some people might wonder what the hijackers did in order to successfully hijack the plane and what went wrong?
A. According to the movie United 93 the morning of the hijacking, the four people set to hijack flight93 prayed.
1. They were praying to their god because they believed that what they were doing was right.
January 27, 2006
United Airlines Flight93
The Centre for Cooperative Research on WWW reported that United Airlines Flight93 bound for San Francisco, California took off at 8.42 a.m. from Newark International Airport, 41 minutes behind schedule. As per the protocol the Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening System (CAPPS) "automatically targets passengers for additional screening based on suspicious behavior such as buying one-way tickets or paying with cash. If a passenger is selected, their bags are thoroughly screened for explosives, but their bodies are not searched." The CAPPS did select Ahmad Alhaznawi of flight93 and searched the bag for explosives, but was not stopped.
UNITED AIRLINES FLIGHT93 on WWW reported that the United Airlines Flight93 carried 33 passengers and 7 crew members, whereas sadnews.net on WWW reported that there were 2 pilots, 5 flight attendants and 38 passengers. The plane was captained by Jason Dahl, 43 along with another pilot LeRoy Homer, 36. The crew members consisted of Lorraine Bay, Sandra Bradshaw, Wanda Green, CeeCee Lyles and Deborah Welsh.
The Centre for Cooperative Research on WWW stated that Ed Ballinger a flight dispatcher for United Airlines sent warning signals of the first WTC crash a few minutes after 9.00...
...A WRITE UP ON
PREVENTION OF MORAL DWARFISM
REVIEW OF ‘UNITED 93’
The term dwarfism was restricted to the field of medicine. But in today’s scenario we find that our society as such is a dwarf, morally. Anti-social elements and activities have become the top most concern, because of their undue influence on the society.
The gloomiest of all anti-social activity is the act of ‘TERRORISM’, the word which the world hates the most today.
The term "terrorism" since the 1970s was directed to various phenomenon, starting from fearsome threats until today the world under UN has failed to come to an agreement about what is an acceptable definition for terrorism. It is still under debate despite attempts made by many experts. The effort to approach terrorism from a definitional perspective has thus become a never-ending effort.
1. The use of violence and threats to intimidate or coerce, especially for political purposes.
2. The state of fear and submission produced by terrorism or terrorization.
3. A terroristic method of governing or of resisting a government.
TYPES OF TERRORISM
There are six different types of terrorism. They are anarchist terrorism, state sponsored terrorism, right wing terrorism, left wing terrorism, religious terrorism, and nationalist terrorism.
Anarchist terrorism was a major global phenomenon from the 1870s to 1920. A...
Remillard, COM 212
October 8, 2013
At 8:46am on September 11, 2001 the world stands still.
Smoke billowing, fire consuming, two gleaming towers falling.
A third strike, Lady Liberty crumples to one knee.
This is ground zero.
No cough can expel it.
No bandage can cover it.
No pill can numb it.
The world stands watching, its mouth frozen agape.
America is under attack.
Hundreds fight to save what is already lost.
The world stands scolding this campaign which has no politicians, no election and no winner.
Americans dig deep into the destruction and lift their faces to the heavens, crying at what they find.
Children mourn for their mothers, fathers, sisters and brothers.
Thousands of lives lost to terrorism.
No one worried this day, until the calls tell.
No one knew this day, until the tears swell.
No one saw this day, until the towers fell.
The world stands clenched, fearful of the forthcoming.
United Flight93 is still in the sky, the target unknown.
Aboard, the brave forty plot against four savage demons.
No threat will impede them.
No injury will hinder them.
No terrorist will stop them.
They know death will come soon.
In that fleeting moment when all is lost, the brave forty call their loved ones to say goodbye.
Not one soul waivers, they know what they must do.
In their hearts they find courage to be brave....
September 11, 2001. Was a nightmare for American’s everywhere; many lost their family members and loved ones. Only two hours after the Pentagon had been attacked and 3 and half hours after the Twin Towers had been knocked down. The President and our Military had received terrifying news. The United Airlines had called 911 stating that they’re flight93 was scheduled to fly from Newark International Airport in New York to, New Jersey, to San Francisco International Airport than into San Mateo County, in California. But in New Jersey the plane had started traveling east, straight towards Washington D.C. When General Dave Martin heard the news his first thoughts were “It was a living nightmare, It was like somebody coming into your home and burning everything you stand for and your loved ones in front of your eyes.” United Airlines had kept track of exactly where the plane was going and tried several time to make contact with flight93 without success. The President and his family were evacuated from the White House right away. Flight93 had been hijacked by four terrorists, there leader of this mission was Ziad Jarrah. The hijackers boarded the plane’s cockpit and overpowered the flight crew approximately 46 minutes after takeoff. Ziad Jarrah, a trained pilot, then took control of the aircraft and directed it east...
...Utilitarianism as an ethical theory
Utilitarianism is the view that an act is right if it equals the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Utilitarians describe moral actions as actions that boost something good and lessen something that is bad. Virtue, knowledge, and goodwill are all good but they are only good if they give people a pleasurable existence. Pain is the only thing that is intrinsically bad. Utilitarians focus on the result of an act instead of the inherent nature of the act. An example would be an individual throwing their garbage into the ocean. Utilitarians would say throwing garbage into the ocean is not necessarily bad, but the effect it leaves will cause harm sooner or later and that is what is bad. I do not think that utilitarianism can be an ethical theory. It is simply too difficult to determine whether the utilitarian theory can be justified. The dilemma of trying to focus on a positive outcome or focusing on the actions that we take in order to accomplish the greatest good is too hard to measure.
Utilitarianism is a type of consequentialist theory. The consequentialist theory says moral rightness is determined solely by the consequence of your action. If an act maximizes the good then it is good. A utilitarian will support the decision of an action that will produce the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. However, this is...
...Utilitarianism and Business Ethics
Utilitarianism is a normative, consequentialist, empirical philosophy which links the idea of a good action to one which promotes maximum pleasure or happiness, found by adding up costs and benefits (or pains and pleasures). It has two classic formulations - Bentham's hedonistic (pleasure-based) act utilitarianism and Mill's eudaimonistic (happiness-based) rule utilitarianism. In this article we make some preliminary comments on Bentham and Mill before analysing a famous case in 1972 where utilitarian ethics seemed to cause a very immoral outcome - the Ford Pinto case.
Bentham rejected Christianity and was influenced by David Hume (1711-76) and the French philosophe Helvitius, who argued that true justice was synonomous with the good of the whole. He formulated the greatest happiness principle: "By the principle of utility is meant that principle which approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever, according to the tendency which it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question."
• There is one good, pleasure, and one evil, pain.
• Human nature is naturally motivated by "two sovereign masters, pleasure and pain". We are pleasure-seekers (hedonists). Other motives such as duty, respect, are irrelevant.
• The empirical calculation could be done with a hedonic calculus which allocates hedons of...
The concept of sustainable development is an attempt to balance two
moral demands placed on the environment. The first demand is for development,
including economic development or growth. It arises mainly from the interests
of people who live in developing countries. Their present poverty gives them a
low quality of life and calls urgently for steps to improve their quality of
life. The second demand is for sustainability, for ensuring that we do not risk
the future in the sake of gains in the present. This arises from the interests
of people in the future who will need access to a reasonable quality of life,
non-renewable resources, unspoiled wilderness, and a healthy biosphere. These
two moral demands do conflict. In fact, economic growth is the prime source of
threats to the natural environment.
We have a rough sense of what a good quality of life for humans consists
of. Also, we can make some rough judgments about when a person's quality of
life has increased or decreased. Utilitarianism about future generations says
that people should weigh these increases impartially with respect to times. And,
in particular, should not prefer a smaller increase in the present well-being to
larger increases in the future. We should try to maximize the sum of increases
in well-being across times counting future lives equally against those in the
present. Our moral goal should always be to...