Table of Contents
1.Introduction……………………………………………2-3 2.Theoretical models on higher education funding…....4-5
3.Sources of funding higher education…………………6 4.The government policy………………………………..7-8 5.Alternative funding programs……………………….9-10 6.Conclusion …………………………………………….11 7.References……………………………………………..12
The recent shocking revelation of many employees in the public service of Kenya with no post secondary academic qualifications is perhaps an awakening call for the government to evaluate its labour policies. More than the corruption connotation of these findings is a call for the government to make an intentional move to enhancing the labour productivity by expanding financing for higher education. Often the need for financing higher education is brought to our attention when we get news about a successful KCSE candidate raising calls for well wishers to sponsor them for their higher education. Sometimes the media will facilitate an outcry for sponsorship for a needy student but scarcely are noticed the many other cases. There is a concern that the future is bleak for the youthful talents as many broken dreams and careers are hampered due to lack of funding for higher education. This is a milestone to enhancing and expanding economic in Kenya.
Researchers and policy makers have delved into the questions of the ideology of the government spending on higher education. The number of student sponsored by the Government through the Joint Admissions Board is limited. As reported for year 2011, the universities would admit 32, 611 students who sat the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) in 2009 and 2010, out of 96,000 who qualified. This was upon a decision by the universities’ Joint Admissions Board (JAB) to have a double intake of new undergraduate students. As Professor Mugenda noted, "If we have to avoid the tsunami of 2015, universities must be able to expand their infrastructure to accommodate more students between now and thereafter,” There is an urgent need for the Government to expand funding for public universities to avoid a crisis not only for the near future. The springing up of many private institutions offering higher education is yet another indicator of the expanding gap for higher education funding
This paper will explore the increasing gap for higher education financing as it ascertains the current level of funding undergraduate studies and the alternative programs for funding higher education in Kenya. In tandem with this, the study will do an inquiry on the government role in the financing of higher education in Kenya.
To this end, this study seeks to evaluate and suggest appropriate maxims for sustainable higher education funding. If the ideology of the government of the day regarding higher education is not objective and feasible enough, the inadequacy of higher education financing cannot be resolve. The resultant problem of leakage of human capital from the country becomes evident coupled with problems of underproduction and unemployment. Does Kenya appreciate her potential future human capital?
2.Theoretical models and ideologies on higher education funding
The implementation of educational policies largely depends on the overriding national economic policy. The national economic policy in turn is influenced by political ideologies and the theoretical model in place. The predominant political ideology can wage immense sway on the educational policy of a country. Two major political ideologies are known to influence the economic planning of nation namely, capitalism and socialism.
In a capitalist state, the basis of planning is inclined to merit where forces of market forces of demand and supply rule. This implies that opportunities are available to those who can afford them. This egalitarian approach is however prone to the hazards of enlarging the gap between the haves and have nots in accessing higher education....
...QN) With close reference to university education in Kenya, discuss the various means of financingeducation and evaluate the equity implications.
To answer this claim, we start by defining critical terms so as to clearly get the full meaning of this assertion.
Education is the process act or process of impacting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgement, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life. It can also be defined as the process of acquiring desirable skills, attitudes and knowledge, as for a profession
University education means the totality of general and specialized knowledge and skills that enable a university graduate to solve problems that he encounters in industry or to perform scientific research or pedagogical work within the area of specialized knowledge that he has acquired.
Financing refer to how people allocate their assets over time and conditions of certainity and uncertainity while educationfinancing refers to any aspect of raising and spending revenue for educational purposes.
Kenya as one of the developing countries in Afrca is faced with the problem of...
...Kenyan Education System: Issues and Obstacles to Learning
Posted by Lee-Anne Benoit on April 27th 2013
I’m back again with an outline of what I’ve learned about the Kenyan Education system from the diverse experiences that I’ve had. You’ll notice this blog is slightly more academic in nature, but I felt that it was important to find research to back up my own observations.
Education is perceived as one of the principal motivating factors behind national economic development and it is one of the most effective ways in which individuals can ever hope to achieve better opportunities and a higher standard of living in Kenya. For these reasons Kenya has invested heavily into its education system over the past twenty years. It is my primary objective in this blog to express all that I have learned about the primary and secondary education systems in Kenya in the short 12 weeks that I have been here. I discuss the structure of primary and secondary schools, the implementation of universal free primary education (FPE), limited and equitable access to education, obstacles to learning within the classroom, special needs education and inclusion. My understanding is derived from my experiences visiting and working at eleven different public and private schools in Kenya, two Masters courses in Special...
In the time I have spent in highereducation, I have noticed that educators generally encounter three categories of students. The first category, about 10 percent of the student population will always succeed because they have the attitude that failure is not an option. The second group, another 10 percent of the population, will inevitably fail, lacking the personal motivation and drive necessary to reach educational goals. Approximately 80 percent of students make up category three. A group full of bright minds that could lean toward either success or failure. This group will most significantly be impacted by changes and improvements in education. The differentiating factor in this group is that each student's response to the same question: "Is investing in my education really worth it?"
Some people are deterred from pursuing highereducation because of the price tag attached. Even though student loans are often available, the idea of repaying student loan debt, with high interest rates and low job prospects is a significant roadblock for many. For students with young families or those who have never considered post-secondary education, it is often much more appealing to take a job out of high school and immediately generate income. These are the students who begin to feel that an education is simply not...
Highereducation in the present world has a very long history. Highereducation has deep roots in the early sixth century when first monastic schools were started in Europe which later developed to the famous European university in Bologna during the period between 1088 and 1090. This is the origin of highereducation with all present systems of highereducation borrowing much from this first intuition and system of highereducation. Until early 20th century, highereducation institutions and particularly universities and high level colleges catered only for the elites in the society. Though in this time basic education was enough to secure an individual a well-paying job, the costs of securing a place in the institutions of highereducation as well as maintaining the costs for the period of a given course locked out the middle income earners as well as the poor. Statistically, by the start of 20th century, 3 per cent of the world population had enrolled in universities and other colleges offering highereducation programs. This number was much concentrated in the European continent...
...Case Study: Economic Crisis and HigherEducation in the United States
The 2008–2012 economic failure is considered by many economists and investors to be the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. It results in the risk of total collapse from big financial firms, the bailout of banks by national governments, and downturns in stock markets around the world. The crisis also plays a significant role in the crash of key businesses and collapse of housing market, results in the delayed unemployment. Highereducation is a large and various venture in the United States, which has impacted by the economic recession in a number of ways, but these impacts have not been the same and vary depending on state and type of institution.
Most highereducation traditions started to be concerned about their financial problems due to economic recession. Their main source of revenue has been hurt by the downturn, and that those universities would need to make hard decisions about how to spend their money. In some states, a lot of institutions are in process of fund-raising programs to avoid delaying their supported campus building projects. Many of highereducation university’s leaders have been considering and solving of two following questions: How is the economic downturn affecting institutions both public and private? What strategies are...
...In the society of the United States, students are expected to follow the typical path of day care, grade school, middle school, high school and hopefully college. Growing up in America today, the importance of education is stressed starting at the earliest stages of development. In a world with a competitive job market and with citizens who want to make the most money that they can, a college education is the key to success. For some students,financing college is not a problem. Money should not be a factor in the student’s decision-making process when choosing what school to attend, but unfortunately many people are unable to attend the university of their choice due to high tuition costs. Working through college is not always the best answer because this may have a negative effect on academic performance with the added stress. It is true that financial aid and loans are available, but it is sometimes much harder to take advantage of these than people realize. Although universities offer many forms of aid in paying for college, the continually increasing prices still make it impossible for many people to afford highereducation, and lowering prices would be effective in increasing the amount of people able to obtain a college degree.
The average income for middle class families is an estimated $49,500. This is barely more than just the tuition of many colleges, not including services such as room and...
...HigherEducation in the USA.
Finishing school is the beginning of an independent life for millions of school graduates. Many roads are open before them. But it is not an easy thing to choose a profession out of more than the 2000 existing in the world.
Out of the more than three million students who graduate from high school each year, about one million go on for “highereducation”. Simply by being admitted into one of the most respected universities in the United States, a high school graduate achieves a degree of success. A college at a leading university might receive applications from two percent of these high school graduates, and then accept only one out of every ten who apply. Successful applicants at such colleges are usually chosen on the basis of :
a) high school records;
b) recommendations from high school teachers;
c) the impression they make during interviews at the university;
d) their scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT);
The system of highereducation in the United States is complex. It comprises four categories of institution:
1. The university, which may contain:
- several colleges for undergraduate students seeking a bachelor’s four-year degree;
- one or more graduate schools for those continuing in specialized studies beyond the bachelor’s...
Contrast HigherEducation System
North Dakota State
Comparing and contrasting the highereducation system(Japan Vs. USA).
Have you ever wonder who has the better education system between the United States and Japan ? Well, This essay will announce on how the US is similar to Japan highereducation system. It will also compare and contrast three different areas such as student loans, popular fields of study, ages and of students attending highereducation programs.
Japan's highereducation system is broken into two different bodies limited public that is governed by its national and local governments and a private sector that is market driven. Japan has reformed their student loan system through the Independent Administrative Institution. Because of this reform Japan has two type of student loans. The first class loans have zero rate of interest and are academically selective. The Second class loan are interest baring and are not academically selective as the first class loans. Both types of loans could be used for living and school expenses. The United States has several types of student loans that are very different than Japan's because they help cover the fees and helps need based students gain...