There will come a time when holding on to your Iman will be like holding on to hot coals. - Prophet Muhammad
A marketing executive at Google and a self-diagnosed “Internet Addict,” Whael Ghonim scored a Klout of 80. Klout uses a complex algorithm to measure Internet influence. Score a Klout of 100 and you’re a virtual autocrat. Ghonim's Facebook reaches 720,000 followers. Casual, technical, or political, Ghonim’s Facebook activity generates thousands of impressions. Raw and mangled, Khaled Said’s inert body divulged the blows he sustained from Egyptian police officers. On June 8, 2010, Ghonim came across a posthumous photo of the 28-year-old and created the Facebook page “Kullena Khaled Said” — “We Are All Khaled Said.” Two minutes after going live, the page earned 300 likes. By August, the number had ballooned to 250,000. The page quickly became a forum for political debate, inspiring “an uprising that led to the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak and the dissolution of the ruling National Democratic Party” (Vargas). Mubarak’s abdication testified to the influence of social media and made Whael Ghonim, then imprisoned, a celebrated hero. Social media and broadcast innovations are responsible for connecting billions of people across the world. Post a status on Facebook; your friend in Egypt will see it instantly. Or, if you choose, start an uprising of your own design. In the next few paragraphs, I will address Western stereotypes of Middle Eastern, namely Egyptian, women, notions of female autonomy, and divergences, or contradictions, in interpretations of gender roles, all as influenced by “modern” thought and technologies. I will consult the works of Lila Abu-Lughud, Leila Ahmed, and Elizabeth Fernea, feminists with similar, but idiosyncratic views on the aforementioned topics, and juxtapose their reasonings, observations, and findings.
Rise of Feminism
As early as the 1870s, feminists, as al-Tahtawi and ‘Abdu, lobbied for reforms in divorce and...
The following is a review paper which assesses Margot Badran’s Feminism in Islam: Secular and Religious Convergences. After providing an insight into the books main topics and ideas, an evaluation of Badran’s literary skills are provided to asses her credibility and introduce the main argument of the critical response. The reader will be provided with several arguments which prove that there were many male advocates of feminism inIslam which Badran chose not to include in her research. These feminists will be acknowledged and their support of feminism will be highlighted, to show that they truly deserve to be mentioned throughout her research in greater detail.
Keywords & terms:
Feminism, ‘Male advocates’, equality, ‘women’s rights’, ‘chain of men’, Islam
Women are the twin halves of men:
Exploring male advocates of Islamic feminism
Margot Badran is a historian who specializes in Islamic and Middle Eastern studies. She takes great interest in women in the Islamic world and this is reflected in most of her work. Badran is currently a senior scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington. Furthermore she travels the world giving lectures about her findings and her views about women in Islam. Her work stems from the 19th century to around the 21st century, where she tries to provide an analysis of...
...ASSIGNMENTS BORROWED OR STOLEN FROM OTHER(S) AS ONE’S OWN WILL BE PENALIZED AS DEFINED IN “AIOU PLAGIARISM POLICY”.
Guidelines for preparing assignment
Assignment is a take home test; you are free to use materials from internet, books and course books. Please understand the question and write in your own words by arranging your answer with an introduction, main discussion with sub topics and conclusions. Copying from books, internet etc is not allowed. Typed assignments are not accepted. If reference of other research is being quoted, it should be properly acknowledged.
Course: Feminism and Islam (4648)
Semester: Spring, 2012 Level: M.Sc
Total Marks: 100 Pass Marks: 40
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Islamic feminism is a thinking process only or it is a movement in Muslim societies for women rights?
Q.2 Trace the origin of feminism in Egypt and discuss its major issues.
Q.3 What is Orientalism? Why women’s situation is central in the discussions of the western orientalist writers?
Q.4 How women’s role in Iranian revolution has influenced the women of the Muslim world.
Q.5 How religious interpretations impact the lives of women? Discuss in context of Hadood Ordinances in Pakistan.
ASSIGNMENT No. 2
Q.1 Do you think Muslim women’s practice of hijab/covering is a global issue and being exploited?
Q.2 What are the gaps between the women’s...
Women for years have been socially oppressed and not given gender equality. Feminism is the advocacy of women’s rights on the grounds of political, economical and social equality to man. According to the Dictionary of Critical Theory, feminism’s common core is the thesis that the relationship between the sexes is one of inequality or oppression and that all forms of feminism seek to identify the cause of that inequality and remedy it.
A little background to how women have been oppressed. In the early 1900’s, women were given no political rights, which means they weren’t allowed to vote during elections. Women had a very stereotypical role. If they were married, they’re sole purpose is to bare children, take care of those children, put food on the table when their husbands arrive back home and I think worst of all they were taught to be oppressed without even realizing it. Their husband would be allowed to go out and do whatever that pleases them and the wives are taught not to make noise about it. If women weren’t married and wanted to work, they were expected to take simple roles like teaching and housekeeping. As time progressed, so did people. In the mid 1900’s, many of the men were battling for their lives during the World War 1 and World War 2 and during this period is when the women had to take on certain roles of men to compensate for their absence. After the war, a number of these women had kept their jobs...
Introduction to Sociology
Belief in the social, political, and economic equality
of the sexes.
The movement organized around this belief.
Feminist Theory is an outgrowth of the general
movement to empower women worldwide.
Feminism can be defined as a recognition and
critique of male supremacy combined with efforts to
The goals of feminism are:
To demonstrate the importance of women
To reveal that historically women have been
subordinate to men
To bring about gender equity.
Feminists fight for the equality of women and argue
that women should share equally in society’s
opportunities and scare resources.
As old as human history itself.
In Germany the feminists were fighting for the right
of women to engage in sexual relations regardless
of marital and legal consideration.
Marianne Weber (the wife of Max Weber) was a
Weber thought that women should be treated
equally in the social institution of marriage, along
with all the other social institutions.
She made it clear that marriage was between a
man and a woman
The contemporary feminism movement began in the
Free love helped escape the sexual double standard.
Divorce became commonplace
Women were “happy...
...While today we feel that we are an advanced and unbiased society, in actuality there are still clear and present separations between men and women; mostly which degrade and pigeonhole women in terms of their looks, sexuality, and role in society. It is granted that gender inequalities are bound to happen considering the genders do have Karl Marx put it best, “Social progress can be measured by the social position of the female sex.”
. This is where they will learn that the line they can walk on to avoid ridicule is very fine. Their peers and media teach women in their adolescence that there is a small amount of qualities that are acceptable. Men do not like things like the natural and healthy body hair that their grow so they must remove it. They cannot be too stupid because they will be bimbos but they cannot be too smart because they will be pretentious. If they are open and confident with their sexualities they will be called ‘slut’s but if they are more reserved with their sexualities they will be called ‘prude’. There is very little they can do to avoid name-calling.
Shirley Chisholm once said, “The emotional, sexual, and psychological stereotyping of females begins when the doctor says, “It’s a girl.” That being true, women will only face this harmful stereotyping the rest of their lives. A girl will unknowingly suffer this gender inequality starting from extremely young ages via things like toys and Halloween costumes. Few of those things are ever gender neutral....
Examining Branches of FeminismFeminism Defined
What follows are different branches of feminism theory that are recognized by
feminists and feminist scholars. These different theories of feminism are widely
acknowledged and taught in women's studies courses, gender studies courses, and
Often people have created their own definition of feminism to best suit them. The
definitions here are theoretical, and are an example of the diversity among
feminists. Why one believes in feminism and what their ideas are to make
feminism a reality is the primary source of conflict within the feminism movement.
You may find that you believe in the theory of feminism, but do not see yourself
fitting into the branches of feminism below, that is common. You can believe that
women and men should be politically, economically and socially equal for your own
reasons and hold your own ideas pertaining how you can make that happen. If that
is the case you are likely practicing some form of feminism whether or not you
directly associate yourself with the feminist movement or theory.
FeminismFeminism is theory that men and women should be equal politically, economically
This is the core of all feminism theories. Sometimes this definition is also...
Feminism comprises a number of social, cultural and political movements, theories and moral philosophies concerned with gender inequalities and equal rights for women.
In its narrowest interpretation, it refers to the effort to ensure legal and political equality for women; in its broadest sense it comprises any theory which is grounded on the belief that women are oppressed or disadvantaged by comparison with men, and that their oppression is in some way illegitimate or unjustified.
The basis of feminist ideology is that society is organized into a patriarchal system in which men are privileged over women.
Feminism is generally said to have begun in the 19th century as people increasingly adopted the perception that women are oppressed in a male-centered society. The feminist movement is rooted in the West and especially in the reform movement of the 19th century. The organized movement is dated from the first women's rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848. The discussion was focused on the social, civil and religious condition of women.
Feminism has five major concepts embedded into it:
Patriarchy - the dominance of men in society, and the oppression of women for men’s gain. Example: ‘The family is patriarchal because women must do housework without pay.’
Discrimination - unfair/unequal treatment of women i.e. by the law. Example: Women paid less than men until Equal Pay Act...
Feminism with The Yellow Wallpaper
Feminism is base on the assumption that women have the same human, political and social rights as men, furthermore, that women should have the same opportunities as men in their personal choices. A feminist text will be written by woman, and it will point out deficiencies in society regarding equal opportunity. “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Gilman is a great example of a feminist text; telling a story about a woman’s against male thinking and society norms. In the short story, the woman is completely isolated and has no say in anything that regards her own life. Her husband John does what he believes to be what’s best for her, but in fact, is the complete opposite. It is this sequestration, brought on to her by her own husband, which led to her insanity.
Gilman clarifies on the first page the narrator's feminist disinclination, "John laughs at me, of course, but one expects that in marriage." (394, Kirszner & Mandell) This defines the woman's attitude towards her position in her marriage and society. The woman's defeatism also works to 'put her in her place' in the patriarchal society. After briefly explaining that her husband does not believe she is sick, she concedes, "And what can one do?” (394, Kirszner & Mandell) Less than one page later, she again surrenders, after expressing disagreement with her husband's methods: “Personally, I disagree with their ideas. Personally, I believe that...