Female Genital Mutilation
Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a procedure performed on young girls that are as early as a few days old. Female Genital Mutilation is one of the worst forms of abuse to young girls and women and should be stopped by creating awareness on this cause. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines FGM as “a procedure that involves partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or injury to other female genital organs for non-medical reasons.” Female genital mutilation is also known as, female genital cutting, and female circumcision. It is practiced in North Eastern, Western, and Eastern Africa, the Middle East, and in immigrant communities in North America and Europe. This practice is not specifically evolved from any religion. It is a procedure that is carried out in order to continue the cultural practice. There are four types of FGM which are: clitoridectomy, clitoridotomy, infibulation, and any other type of procedure carried out to injure the female’s genitals. There are many reasons as to why people have the procedure carried out on their daughters but they are all mostly social and cultural factors. FGM has been declared a human rights violation by the United Nation as it violates the rights of the child, the rights of women, and many others. Many campaigns have started running in order to create awareness on FGM and to encourage many countries to speak out against FGM by criminalizing the procedure of FGM.
The World Health Organization claims that there are four types of FGM. The first major type is called a clitoredectomy. A clitoridectomy is either the partial or total removal of the clitoris, or sometimes the labia minora. (Zaryckyj, 2009) This is mostly practiced in Sub-Saharan Africa, East Africa, Egypt, Sudan Indonesia, and the Arabian Peninsula. The Second type of female circumcision is clitoridotomy, which is the splitting or removal of the prepuce. (Zaryckyj, 2009) This type is the least damaging type of female circumcision, and is also the equivalent of the removal of the foreskin of the penis. This type is also becoming more common in the United States in cosmetic procedures. The third type of female circumcision is infibulation, which is the removal of the clirtoris, labia minora, sometimes the labia majora, and then the stitching of the vaginal opening while leaving only a small hole open to let urine and menstrual blood through. (Zaryckyj, 2009) This procedure can make sexual intercourse difficult, painful, and dangerous if the opening is made too small. This type is done to reduce any sexual sensation and to make sure that the woman does not have sex before marriage. Any other type of procedure done that involves injuring a woman’s genitals is considered a “fourth type” of female circumcision. (Zaryckyj, 2009)
Contrary to western beliefs, Female circumcisions are not an Islamic practice. Female circumcision was practiced before the existence of the religion of Islam and before the Prophet Mohammed was born. The topic of female circumcisions was first written about in Egyptian hieroglyphics. In fact, nowhere in Muslim context does it say that God does not approve of the clitoris. If anything, in the Quran, it says that a man and wife should pleasure each other during sex, therefore meaning that God does approve of the clitoris. There are many reasons as to why this is done. Many people believe that the clitoris is not clean and is removed for hygienic purposes. In many countries, women remain unmarried if she does not undergo this procedure because they are considered to be morally ‘unclean’ and also not considered ‘pure’. In many cultures, sex before marriage is unacceptable. Since clitoridectomies and infibulations prevent a woman from feeling any sexual sensation, these procedures are encouraged in order to preserve the woman’s honor and to prevent her from losing her virginity. However, some people believe that female circumcision provides women...
The History, The Laws, The Opposition, and the Future
The History, The Laws, The Opposition, and the Future
Female genitalmutilation includes “all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons” (WHO). The World Health Organization states that 140,000,000 girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of female genitalmutilation. The procedure can be carried out on babies as young as two weeks old and on woman in their twenties. The age at which girls are cut can vary widely from country to country, and even within countries. Most often, female genitalmutilation happens before girls reach puberty (Women’s Health). In Africa, there is an estimated 101,000,000 girls 10 years old and above that have undergone female genitalmutilation.
The procedure is generally performed without anesthesia by an older woman who acts as the local midwife and it is often conducted in the girl’s home. However, there are a few villages that have all the girls lay next to each other and the circumciser cuts all of them in a row. The World Health Organization recognizes four types of female...
...I strongly oppose Female genitalmutilation to the fact that it violates two important humanrights, namely: the right to have a surgery or not; and the right to keep one’s own gender identity. Another reason why I stand against female genitalmutilation is the fact that I think that female genitalmutilation is a strong gender issue leaning in favor of traditional men who want to control their many wives while they take turns to sleep with them, since female genitalmutilation reduces the urge for women to have sex. Finally, I say no to female genitalmutilation because it passes health threats to its victims such as hemorrhages, shock, abscesses, urinary tract infections, HIV, small benign tumors, etc.
Female genitalmutilation (FGM) includes procedures that intentionally alter or injure female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The procedure has no health benefits for girls and women. Procedures can cause severe bleeding and problems urinating, and later, potential childbirth complications and newborn deaths. An estimated 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of female genitalmutilation (FGM). It is mostly carried out on young girls from 10 years of...
... Female genital modification, or mutilation, (FGM) is a topic that has been debated amongst anthropologists, as well as the general population, for quite some time now. This process, which is practiced in different areas of the world including parts of Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, involves removing all or part of a woman’s external female genitalia for no medical reason. The World Health Organization (WHO) indicated that there are four different types that can occur including a clitoridectomy, which is removing all or part of the clitoris, or an excision, which is complete or partial removal of the labia minora and clitoris. The next, most extreme form of modification is infibulation, in which all external genitalia is removed and the two sides of the vulva are stitched together and the final category is other, which includes all other damaging practices to the female genitalia. In some of these cultures, FGM is something that is celebrated; however, many other cultures view this as a gruesome violation against humanrights.
The main reason that female genital modification is difficult to defend with cultural relativism is because of all of the negative consequences that can occur as a result. This procedure, which has absolutely no health benefits, only harms a woman’s body, despite whatever cultural or spiritual benefits it is believed to have. For example, during or immediately following...
...Is Female GenitalMutilation A Moral Practice
Female genitalmutilation (FGM) is not a morally justified practice. It is an unnecessary procedure that has no medical health benefits to the girls and women it is being performed on. According to Utilitarianism, we should produce the greatest amount of pleasure for the greatest number affected. Utilitarian’s also believe that we should alleviate the greatest amount of pain and suffering for the greatest number affected. Based on Utilitarian grounds, FGM has no medical health benefits and it is a completely unnecessary act on females in this culture. It is also an extremely painful procedure that has very serious short term and long term side effects, including death.
Jeremy Bentham, an Act Utilitarian, developed the hedonic calculus, which is a “scientific” methodology for determining which pleasures ought to be pursued and which pains ought to be avoided. FGM is an example of the pains that “ought” to be avoided. This principle enables individuals to provide good reasons for their course of action. When we are deliberating about the right thing to do, Bentham maintains that we must always account for the pleasures and pains. Examples of this are the intensity, duration, certainty or uncertainty, remoteness, fecundity, purity and extent of the pleasure or pain.
In order to understand why FGM is not a morally justified practice and why it goes...
...The Effects of Female GenitalMutilation
Circumcision or removal of the external female genitalia for non-medical reasons, either partial or total, is known as female genitalmutilation (FGM). This practice takes place in many countries, worldwide, the majority of these countries being in Sub-Saharan Africa and also in other regions such as the Middle East, Asia, Australia, North America and even Europe (Donohoe, 2006). The procedure is done for various reasons in different forms and fashions; firstly, there is the clitoridectomy, the removal of the clitoris or very rarely, only the clitoral hood. Secondly, the removal of the clitoris as well as the excision of the labia minora. Next, there is the process of infibulation. This is the narrowing of the vaginal opening by cutting and repositioning the labia and using it as a seal while also removing the clitoris. Lastly, there are other types of mutilation such as pricking, piercing, incising and scraping the genital area (Billingn, Kentenich, 2001). These methods are used for various reasons such as, traditional, religious and even for cleanliness and preservation of virginity (Reymond, 2001). The main purpose of FGM is usually to mark the transition from childhood to womanhood. The function of this practice, whether mild or severe, is generally to lessen the sexual desire of a woman, and so ensure her virginity until she is married. The...
...Also called female circumcision, FGC is defined as “all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether or not for non-medical reasons” (UNAIDS et al., 2008, p. 1).
Some advocates for FGC eradication refer to the procedure as female genitalmutilation because of the extent of damage it can cause to a woman’s reproductive organs.
There four classifications of FGC that have been established by international agencies.
Classification of Types of FGC
Type I: Partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or prepuce (clitoridectomy).
Type II: Partial or total removal of the clitoris and labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (excision).
Type III: Narrowing of the vaginal orifice with creation of a covering seal by cutting and positioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without excision of the clitoris (infibulation).
Type IV: All other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, for example: pricking, piercing, incising, scraping, and cauterization. (UNAIDS et al., 2008.)
Many people consider FGC a violation of humanrights because it is performed on girls and young women who are not yet adults and so are unable to make informed decisions for themselves. Many also see it as an act of gender-based violence because it causes lifelong harm to females (UNAIDS...
...Female GenitalMutilation – Violating Women’s Rights and Bodies
Female GenitalMutilation is often abbreviated “FGM” and is also known as Female Genital Cutting (FGC) or Female Circumcision. According to the World Health Organization, there are 4 major types of practices. The most common one is the Clitoridectomy, a partial or total removal of the clitoris. The Excision is the partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora and/or the labia majora, the inner and outer lips that surround the vagina. Another practice is the narrowing of the vaginal opening through the creation of a covering seal. The seal is formed by cutting, repositioning and stitching the labia and is called Infibulation. The last type includes all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical reasons, e.g. pricking, piercing, incising, scraping and cauterizing the genital area (WHO, 2013).
Procedures are usually carried out on young girls sometime between infancy and age 15, and occasionally on adult women before they give birth to their first child, get married, or after becoming a widow. About 140 million girls and women have undergone FGM worldwide and more than 3 million female infants and children are at risk for this procedure annually (WHO, 2013). Female GenitalMutilation is most common in the western, eastern and...
...Today alone 6000 girls around the world are being held down screaming, crying, and blacking out from the pain pleading for their elders to stop. Their voices fall on deaf ears as their right to sexual pleasure is sliced, chopped, pricked, scraped and burnt away.
Female genitalmutilation also known as female circumcision is the focus of my speech today. By the time I finish speaking, you will agree that this has got to stop!
Today I will explain what FGM is; what are the effects of the procedure and why it is still being performed today.
So going back.... What is female GenitalMutilation?
FGM is a procedure of partial or total removal of the external female genitalia and/or injury to the female genital organs.
There are four grades of FGM with the worst grade which can involve pricking, piercing or incising. Stretching, burning of the clitoris, scraping of the tissue surrounding the vaginal orifice, cutting of the vagina, introduction of corrosive substances or herbs to cause bleeding or tightening.
I have just finished reading a book called ‘Desert Flower’ by Waris Dirie. In it she described her encounter with FGM.
She was 5 years old when she had it preformed. Her and her family were living as nomads in the African desert. One morning her mother woke her up so no-one else would know.
She took her far enough away so that when the procedure was being done the rest...