FEATURES OF INTER- ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORK
This paper tries to study the different aspects of Inter-Organizational Network through literature survey method. It concentrates on the core reasons for forming networks from two different perspectives (transactional and sociological). The elements of network formation are identified dividing them into essential and facilitating factors. It discusses effects of inter-organizational network on the industry. The paper also highlights the feature of knowledge transfer in organizations through networks. Lastly, it tries to focus on the possible impacts that the formation of networks can have on Human Resource Management functions of the networked organization. The paper concludes by asserting the need for more in-depth study on the possible impact on Human Resource Management of a networked organization.
Inter-organizational relations have taken shape in different forms. Organizations, among themselves, have formed contractual relationships or joint ventures or informal associations. Inter Organizational Network as a successful measure of increasing competitiveness has been recognized in various studies, e.g. the studies performed by Hartley et al (2002), Elworth (2000), Nooteboom et al (2000). Organizations form networks to be more successful in an increasingly competitive and uncertain market scenario. There have been studies to establish the effectiveness of forming and operating of these networks. (Samson Wong et al 2005, Downie et al 2002). The number and scope of inter-organizational networks have shown an increasing trend, especially in research oriented fields like biotechnology and pharmaceuticals. The growing phenomenon of inter- organizational network has also been referred as “virtual firm”.
The present study of Inter-organizational network limits itself to the following objectives- •To understand the reason or motivation behind forming of networks from different view-points. •To identify the different factors that are essential and helpful for the formation of inter-organizational network. •To find out the different impacts these networks can have on the industry. •To understand the important process of knowledge transfer within the network. •To study the possible impact of the network on the networked organization’s Human Resource Management function.
This paper is based entirely on literature-survey. This is also a limitation of the study. Articles published in international journals on Organization Theory and related subject, have been studied and utilized to derive the conclusions to the objectives specified. 2
4. Two perspectives: Transactional and Sociological-
The process of formation of inter-organizational network has been analyzed as a self-organizing process by Biggiero (2001). Examples of this kind of network in manufacturing sector in U.K. have been studied by Robertson (1996). The study of Cux et al (2003) about the Food processing industry in U.K. has revealed that the formation of inter-organizational network is an institutional response to technology.
Organization Theorists like Powell (1998) have generally explained the formation of networks from two distinct perspectives- i)One perspective views inter-organizational networks as a form of transaction and mutual exchange of rights. The perspective is based on the tenets of organization economics and business strategy. It focuses on the mechanism of contracts to explain inter-organizational network. ii)The second perspective views the phenomenon of inter-organizational network from a sociological point of view. It concentrates on the process rather than the output. This perspective also judges whether collaboration within the network is embedded in various networks. This perspective also focuses on the ability of organizations to combine their existing capabilities and competencies with those of the...
Inter-organizational trust and the
dynamics of distrust
John Paul MacDuffie
Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania,
JP MacDuffie, 3105 Steinberg-Dietrich Hall,
Wharton School, University of
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6370,
Early research on inter-organizational trust drew on theories about social ties
among individuals, for example, duration of ties and amount of interaction, yet
these proved inadequate to explain the diverse arrangements arising in international business. Dyer and Chu’s award-winning JIBS paper demonstrated that
trust was best predicted by organizational processes that developed positive
expectations of predictability, reliability, and competence, not only within
national boundaries but also in cross-national relationships. This review of recent
trust research building on Dyer and Chu draws attention to six themes: (1) new
conceptualizations that explore identity, roles, and rules as foundations of
presumptive trust at the organizational level; (2) dynamics of trust and distrust
over time, how violations of trust are interpreted, and what affects ease of repair;
(3) pendulum swings in inter-organizational relationships, arising from plural
governance and alternation between modes, but also resulting in the continuous
...Takagism is sweeping all around China
Getting tired of singing karaoke and drinking with your friends? Don’t know what to do when you hang out? Want to try something excited and funny? The new Takagism will be your new choice.
Many people may feel new to this word, Takagism was actually a game which needs players to find clues to unlock the room and find the way out of the puzzle. The game is very easy; all you need is to click your mouse. It is settled in different rooms and the hero is locked in the room for different reasons. Although they give us the reasons, they are still very bizarre.
The Takagism series are all very classic puzzle games, ever since the developer came up with the first edition called ‘Crimson Room’; the game soon gained popularity among the players around the world.
Now, you can experience all these by yourselves, in many cities, conspiracy rooms like Takagism provide different scene for the players. They brought the virtual world to reality and provide the game vividly. The game needs the cooperation between a team and during the game, the players have to make full use of the team members and divide task properly, then they can find the clues in time and make the way out.
There are different scenes and background of each room, and before entering the room, players should base on the story to play different roles. After entering the room the players should divide task properly and work together, find the hidden clues and secrets under...
...FACULTY OF MEDIA, INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
HIGHER CERTIFICATE IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
NETWORK ENGINEERING 511
1ST SEMESTER ASSIGNMENT
Name & Surname: ____________________________________________
ICAS No: _________________
Qualification: ______________________ Semester: _____ Module Name: __________________________
Date Submitted: ___________
Outlines the subject matter clearly and precisely
Reading And Knowledge Of Subject Matter
Wide reading and comprehensive knowledge in the application
Understanding, Analysis And Argument
Complete and perceptive awareness of issues and clear grasp
of their wider significance. Clear evidence of independent
thought and ability to defend a position logically and
Take the reader back to your introduction by giving a brief
summary of your findings.
According to the Harvard Method
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Accurate numbering according to the numbering in text and
LAYOUT AND SPELLING
Font – Arial 12
Line Spacing - 1.5
Margin should be justified.
Signature of Examiner:
Signature of Moderator:
The purpose of an assignment is to ensure that the Learner is able to:
Use methods of enquiry and...
...The basic features of Elizabethan Poetry
During the Elizabethan age England felt the complete effect of the Renaissance. There occurred a revival of the old and classical literature of Greece and Rome and this was manifested in the poetry of the age. The Elizabethan age was characterized by an extreme spirit of adventure, aestheticism and materialism which became the characteristic features of Elizabethan poetry. Many poets displayed their skill in versification during this time and England came to be called `The Nest Of Singing Birds.'
Several general characteristics of Elizabethan Poetry and literature were
1. The period has the great variety of almost unlimited creative force; it includes works of many kinds in both verse and prose, and ranges in spirit from the loftiest Platonic idealism or the most delightful romance to the level of very repulsive realism.
2. It was mainly dominated, however, by the spirit of romance.
3. It was full also of the spirit of dramatic action, as befitted an age whose restless enterprise was eagerly extending itself to every quarter of the globe.
4. In style it often exhibits romantic luxuriance, which sometimes takes the form of elaborate affectations of which the favorite 'conceit' is only the most apparent.
5. It was in part a period of experimentation, when the proper material and limits of literary forms were being determined, oftentimes by means of false starts and grandiose failures....
...2. A medium-sized engineering firm has three separate engineering offices. In each office, a local LAN supports all the engineers in that office. Due to the requirement for collaboration among the offices, all the computers should be able to view and update the data from any of the three offices. In other words, the data storage server within each LAN should be accessible to all computers, no matter where they are located. Draw a network diagram that will support this configuration.
I would recommend them to get a contract from a hosting company that can suffice all their needs. There are lots of web hosts that support companies for sales system; they even give additional functionalities for a reasonable price. Online threats are emerging nowadays, it is not safe to host a system yourself especially if you’re company is still new and needs more experience. Most hosting...
...access-group 2 out
Question 2 – Extended ACL
1. In router JKL:
(config)#access-list 101 permit ip host 192.168.1.2 host 172.16.0.2
(config)#access-list 101 permit ip host 192.168.1.3 host 172.16.0.3
(config)#access-list 101 permit ip host 192.168.1.4 host 172.16.0.4
(config-if)#ip access-group 101 out
Question 3 – AAA
1. Configure Radius server AAA:
a. Network Configuration
i. Client Name: NMN
ii. Client IP: 192.168.0.1
iii. Secret: cisco
iv. ServerType: Radius
b. User Setup
vi. UserName: fns
vii. Password: fns
2. In router NMN:
(config)#username abc password abc
(config)#aaa authentication login default group radius local
(config)#radius-server host 192.168.0.2
(config)#radius-server key cisco
(config)#line con 0
(config-line)#login authentication default
(config)#line vty 0 4
(config-line)#login authentication default
3. Configure Tacacs+ server AAA:
c. Network Configuration
ix. Client Name: TYT
x. Client IP: 188.8.131.52
xi. Secret: cisco
xii. ServerType: Tacacs
d. User Setup
xiv. UserName: fns
xv. Password: fns
4. In router TYT:
(config)#username abc password abc
LAN - Local Area Network
A LAN[->0] connects network devices over a relatively short distance. A networked office building, school, or home usually contains a single LAN, though sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs (perhaps one per room), and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings. In TCP/IP networking, a LAN is often but not always implemented as a single IP subnet.
In addition to operating in a limited space, LANs are also typically owned, controlled, and managed by a single person or organization. They also tend to use certain connectivity technologies, primarily Ethernet[->1] and Token Ring[->2].
WAN - Wide Area Network
As the term implies, a WAN[->3] spans a large physical distance. The Internet is the largest WAN, spanning the Earth.
A WAN is a geographically-dispersed collection of LANs. A network device called a router[->4] connects LANs to a WAN. In IP networking, the router maintains both a LAN address and a WAN address.
A WAN differs from a LAN in several important ways. Most WANs (like the Internet) are not owned by any one organization but rather exist under collective or distributed ownership and management. WANs tend to use technology like ATM[->5], Frame Relay[->6] and X.25[->7] for connectivity over the longer distances.
LAN, WAN and Home Networking
Residences typically employ one LAN and connect to the Internet WAN via an Internet...
...protocols used is called TCP/IP. TCP/IP is actually a collection of various protocols that each has their own special function or purpose. These protocols have been established by international standards bodies and are used in almost all platforms and around the globe to ensure that all devices on the Internet can communicate successfully.
IEEE 802.11 is a set of standards for implementing wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6, 5 and 60 GHz frequency bands. They are created and maintained by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IEEE 802). The base version of the standard was released in 1997 and has had subsequent amendments. These standards provide the basis for wireless network products using the Wi-Fi brand.
The most prevalent is 802.11b. Equipment using 802.11b is comparatively inexpensive. The 802.11b wireless communication standard operates in the unregulated 2.4 GHz frequency range. Unfortunately, so do many other devices such as cordless phones and baby monitors which can interfere with your wireless network traffic. The maximum speed for 802.11b communications is 11 mbps. 802.11b uses the same media access method defined in the original standard. 802.11b products appeared on the market in early 2000, since 802.11b is a direct extension of the modulation technique defined in the original standard. The dramatic increase in throughput of 802.11b (compared to the...