Fear is an emotional state, which we are educated with. These fears that normally have a negative perception in our life might have erased through our family or just culture. But where exactly do these fears come from? Our experiences throughout life show us that we are prone to be afraid of any situation, people or even objects that are around us. These awes have implications on our behaviors and personalities because they get through our minds as a respond of insecurity against a certain situation that we might have experienced or been told. Therefore, they change and shape the way we think about anything in our life. The way we live is extremely affected by these fears from childhood to old age and it varies in our culture, experiences and the places we live in. Experiences are the most common factors where one might develop fear. Principally our main fears are learned when we are in contact to objects that might be punitive, such as, electricity or hot things. In the same way we become afraid of races or people that are unlike us. We might not know about how dangerous walking alone in a not very good looking neighborhood could be until we got robbed by a group of people that, for instance, may be all black skin. After this experience we are not going to feel safe in the same place or with this kind of people. Indeed, we might never come back to the same location, and if we do, we will be very afraid of being trapped in the same situation. Even though fears mark our identities negatively, not only because we lived them but also because we are told to be wary while we are alone, they also help us to have caution and hence to act more intelligently in any place we might be. The city I grew up in is very diverse because there are many styles of life. Since I was a child I always had a fear about strangers or people that do not seem trustful and I frequently asked myself the reason I was afraid of them. Technically, mi...
...thoughts(Team Work), engage in energy burning activities(Fatigue), and probably had to be competitive the whole way through either physically or mentally therefore increasing their IQ more in sports.
The students who trained individually will not engage in interactions, therefore decreasing knowledge(IQ) of team work, more focus on the individual since they are being trained individually.
The students with no extra sport will have the abilities to focus on other activities and interact with those doing sports, those who are not and they will have more time to rest therefore increasing brain capacity
An initial experiment taken out showed that the human brain recycles and stores information but does it better when the brain gets rest. It also explained how people who focus on one thing are more intelligent when it comes to that topic.
Let us first focus on the fact that the experiment is based on “Extra sports programme” which means that the students engage in general knowledge training everyday before this extra programme. A percentage of these students will be academically or intellectually gifted, another percentage physically gifted and some might lack strengths from both sides making it logical to focus on one.
A test requires mental strength, and mental strength requires physical strength. If the body is tired, then the brain is tired and therefore can't function the same way as a rested body and relaxed mind hence why those doing team...
...issues of intrusion.
To conclude from the above argument, indeed ethics are important in research for they build mutual trust and respect between the participants and the researcher, they serve normal goals and objectives of the research, and they protect the participants from psychological and physical harm. Ethics are important for both the researcher and the participant at a larger degree, although there are some problems associated with the use of ethics as some ethics will disturb the yielding of valid and reliable research results.
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SHAUGHNESSY, J. ZECHMEISTER, E. B AND ZECHMEISTER, J. S (2009) RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY 8TH EDITION
Koocher, GP and Keith-Spiegel, P (1998) Ethics in Psychology New York: Oxford University Press
Sales, B.D., & Folkman, S. (Eds.). (2000). Ethics in research with human participants. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist
...Life changing events and daily hassles
Stressors can classified into two broad categories: discrete or continuous. Most of the research on discrete stressors has focused on the study of major life events, such as divorce or job loss, that require a significant degree of adjustment on the part of the individual. Continuous stressors, such as ongoing problems of life and living, also permeate our daily reality. Psychologists look at the impact of discrete major stressors, i.e life changes, and then move on to examine the impact of continuous minor stressors, i.e daily hassles.
Life Changes - The social readjustment rating scale (SRRS)
A major way of measuring the relationship between life changes and well being is the the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS). This scale, developed by Holmes and Rahe in 1967, is also known as the Holmes-Rahe Life Events Rating Scale. Together with some later variations, the SRRS has been the most widely used of all method for assessing life stress.
A study of life changes as a source of stress (Rahe et al. 1970)
Aim: To find out if scores on the Holmes and Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale correlated with the subsequent onset of illness.
Procedure: 2500 male American sailors were given the SRRS to asses how many life events they had experienced in the previous six months. The total score on the SRRS was recorded for each participant. Then, over the following six months whilst on tour of duty, detailed...
...Research Methods of Psychology
Psychological Research is conducted to obtain factual information about human behavior and mental processes to find out the underlying cause and effect relationship. Here we will discuss two out of five methods of conducting Psychological Research named:
1. Case History Method
2. Survey Method
1. CASE HISTORY/ CASE STUDY/ CLINICAL METHOD
A case study is an in-depth study of one person. Much of Freud's work and theories were developed through individual case studies.
It is sometimes very helpful to study one person (or a very small group of people) in great depth to learn as much information as possible. This method is particularly useful in studying rare disorders or circumstances.
A. Studying the life history of a man who acquired schizophrenia at the age of 20.
B. Following one child from conception to adulthood to examine this lifespan development.
Types of Case Studies:
Explanatory: Used to do causal investigations.
Exploratory: A case study that is sometimes used as a prelude to further, more in-depth research. This allows researchers to gather more information before developing their research questions and hypotheses.
Descriptive: Involves starting with a descriptive theory. The subjects are then observed and the information gathered is compared to the pre-existing theory.
Intrinsic: A type of case study in which the researcher has a personal interest in the case....
...Section One – 1
When psychology first began to become a science in 1860, it was more of a field of philosophy than an actual medical study. It dealt with a more abstract concept than other medical fields; the human body is something concrete that you can physically look at and study whereas, at the time, you could not physically see the mind.
In Ancient Greece thinkers such as Aristotle and Plato could only come up with theories as to how the mind works. Plato believed that some knowledge is innate while Aristotle believed that the ability to learn depended on experience, however neither were able to prove their theories with concrete evidence. As time went on and psychology became more widely known, more theoretical approaches to psychology were introduced. Freud established the psychoanalytical theory, which emphasized the importance of the unconscious and how it shaped how humans behave. While Freud did use psychoanalysis to attempt to bring unconscious thoughts and feelings to conscious awareness, it was still far from valid scientific evidence.
In the 20th century, behaviorism was introduced. Behaviorism encouraged psychologists should limit their studies to behavior that was objectively observable. The introduction of behaviorism advanced psychology as a field of scientific study because it now focused on what people do rather than their own personal experiences. Studying behavior rather than gave...
...monolingual. This begins with mixing up languages to relay messages. That is assembling vocabulary of both languages. Later, they separate the words using equivalent terms in each language but using combination of grammatical rules of both languages. This is the point where children learn that language is the vehicle for interaction and communication. At some point of time, lingua learners will find that learning multiple languages happened smoothly and realised that they have acquired the ability to communicate using more than one language. While the majority children learn to speak mother tongue at an early age, the second language is taught in school or in the environment outside home like playground, shop, neighbourhood etc. This is just the way they acquire the language. Also Multilingualism and multicultural can clearly be seen in Malaysia’s classroom.
Not only that, translation from one language to another does improve the level of the language itself. Students will develop certain fundamental skills in simple translation in order to improve their command in languages more effectively. Variety of strategies and different models of bilingual emphasize a child’s native language in varying degrees too.
Some common barriers were prevented when come to living in a multilingual society. It is not a surprise that a child who comes from a multilingual society does better in education. Learning a second language at an instant’s age is much easier than...
...PSY 339 Lecture
Fear Learning in Humans- Learning to be Afraid
Learning- a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience this occurs through ASSOCIATION – PAVLOV
Classical Conditioning a previously neutral stimulus (CS)-red square- gets paired with the unconditioned stimulus (US) – lightening bolt- RESULT- CS elicits fear (CR)
How do we measure fear in Pavlovian Conditioning? Freezing, Vocalization (ultrasonic for rodents), Increase in acoustic startle response, skin conductance- non- specific arousal
Differential Conditioning- ITI- intertrial interval startles for in-between startle probes (when nothing is on the screen)
Startle indexes magnitude of response of fear- ITI lowest, CS- low, CS+ highest
Amygdala (fear conditioning/shock sensitization CS+ startle reflex) nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (RPC) spinal & facial motoneurons (startle reflex), cochlear root neurons (abrupt noise-probe)
Second-order conditioning- things which predict bad things to come (blue to red square, yellow to red light) CR magnitude is lower than first order conditioning (smaller reaction to blue square)
What determines CS-US strength- not just association- but PREDICTABILITY of US, so unpaired US presentations will actually REDUCE CS-US strength, but unpaired is scarier- unpredictable US presentationsreduce conditioned fear, but increases anxiety (ITI goes up) CONTEXT...