Fear Induced Emotion on Motivation
University of Texas at Arlington
Anxiety is a psychological, physiological, and behavior state in humans and animals by a threat to well-being or survival, either potential or actual. Each of us has felt afraid, and we can all recognize fear in many animal species. The function state of fear is defined in terms of being caused by a particular pattern of adaptive behavior to avoid or cope with that threat. We have all been in a situation where we are in fear for our lives and we feel like we would go whatever and say whatever to get us out of this situation. Some psychological theories propose that fear is a biologically basic emotion of all humans and many other animals. Psychologist believe that there are different types of fears when can come into different types of environment. One of these fears are motivation/ personality which is fear of evolutionary danger, novelty, intensity, learning, and social activities. People tend to get fear and anxiety mixed up when in reality fear is usually conceptualized with a threatening stimulus, and anxiety is a more tonic state related to prediction and preparedness. Fear is a chain reaction in the brain that starts with a stressful stimulus and ends with the release of chemicals that cause a racing hear, fast breathing and energized muscles, also known as the fight or flight response. There are many things that could trigger this stimulus such as a spider, a knife at your throat, and auditorium full of people waiting for you to speak. The fear response is almost autonomic; we don’t consciously trigger it or even know what’s going on until it has run its course. Because cells in the brain are constantly transferring information and triggering response there are many areas of the brain that involve fear. Researchers have discovered that certain parts of the brain play central roles in the process, such as they thalamus which decides where to send incoming sensory data from eyes, ears, mouth, or skin, the sensory cortex which interprets sensory data, the hippocampus which sores and retrieves conscious memories; processes sets of stimuli to establish context, the amygdala which decodes emotions, determines possible threat, stores fear memories, and the hypothalamus, which activates the fight or flight response. Usually the process of fear begins with a stimulus and ends with the fight or flight response. Fear of fear probably causes more problems in our lives than fear which means an anxious feeling, caused by our anticipation of some imagined even or experience. Fear like other emotions is basically information which offers us knowledge and understanding if we choose to accept our psychobiological status. As I described before different types of fear I will know talk about other types of fear which they call the five basic fears in which we live by every day. The first is extinction, which is the fear of annihilation, or fear of death, the idea of no longer being arouses anxiety in all normal humans (Albrecht 2012). The second fear is mutilation which is fear of losing any part of our precious bodily structure, the thought of having body’s boundaries invaded, or of losing the integrity of any body part, or natural functions (Albrecht 2012). Another thing that arouses the fear of mutilation is animals such as bugs, snakes, spiders, or any scary thing. The third type of fear is loss of autonomy which is fear of being immobilized, paralyzed, restricted, enveloped, overwhelmed, entrapped, imprisoned, smothered, or controlled by certain circumstances (Albrecht 2012). People who are claustrophobic have a fear of loss of autonomy. The fourth type of fear is separation which is the fear of abandonment, rejection, and loss of connectedness of becoming a non-person, or not wanted in this world, loss of respect by people or loss of value by people (Albrecht 2012). The final type of emotion of the five basic fears is ego-death which is...
...FearFear is a common human emotion that everybody experiences at least once in their life. Fear works like an instinct and can actually be helpful because it gives signal that you should be careful and alert. However, humans respond to fear with different types of physical signs such as sweating, shaking, and increased heartbeat. I have felt this emotion multiple times when I was in my public speaking class as a sophomore. In the book Native Son fear controls one of the characters and it leads him to do something he doesn’t desire.
Fear is a feeling we have all experienced one time as a child or adult. We respond to this emotion differently depending on the situation we are in. Fear is something we can’t control it’s something we do automatically when we feel like we are in danger. We can relate this towards animals due to the fact of their reaction when they feel threatened by something or someone.
During my sophomore year I took public speaking to help me improve my skills of presenting in a large group of people. At first I thought it was going to be an easy class that will help me improve my social skills with other people. I was wrong, when I had to present I was terrified. I was trembling with fear, I didn’t want to mess up nor get laughed at all I was thinking about was that. But once I got it done the...
Emotions & Motivations
John T. Cacioppo has written a book in psychology. Cacioppo expressed throughout the textbook how we can differentiate our motivation and emotions through our own relationships with others. He mentioned how we have people communicate differently through the environmental factors in sexual motivation and sexual emotions. Psychologist has proposed a number of different theories of motivation, including drive theory, instinct theory and humanistic theory. Psychologist believes that we as humans have explored some specific motives: hunger, achievements, sexuality. The ability to remain aware of our emotions or motivations is to always emphasize the interaction between our view of self and others, the role of power in social interaction and how groups of people with whom we interact, affect our decision making process.
Cacioppo has explained how we relate our communication with our reaction occur automatic responses to situations. We often communicate our emotions to others through behaviors such as facial expressions, body language, gestures, and tone of voice.” (P.218) We ask ourselves questions everyday through our life’s span in how people can go through their days feeling happy, sad, depressed or how they might think of their stability need?
In my opinion I think people...
...Motivation and EmotionMotivation
The process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met.
Came from the Latin word “movere” which means “to move”
Two Kinds of Motivation
1. Intrinsic Motivation – occurs when people act because the act itself is satisfying or rewarding (e.g. charity).
2. Extrinsic Motivation – occurs when people receive an external reward for the act (e.g. money).
Approaches to Motivation
1. Instinct Approach – proposes that some human actions may be motivated by instincts (e.g. motherly instinct, survival instinct).
2. Drive –reduction Approach – when an organism has a need, the need leads to psychological tension that motivates the organism to act; fulfilling the need and reducing the tension (e.g. sleep).
3. Arousal Approach – a person has an optimal level of arousal to maintain (sensation seekers).
4. Incentive Approach – an external stimulus may be so rewarding that it motivates a person to act toward that stimulus rather than another stimulus or to satisfy a drive
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Abraham Maslow)
Self Determination Theory (Edward Deci & Richard Ryan)
Biological Basis of Hunger
Lateral Hypothalamus – gives off the biological feeling of hunger.
Ventromedial Hypothalamus – causes a person to feel full.
Digestive System – the stomach and intestines...
...Motivation & EmotionMotivation – is any condition, usually an internal one that can be inferred to initiate, activate, or maintain an organism’s goal-directed behaviour.
First – motivation reflects an internal condition that cannot be directly observed. This may develop from simple physiological needs.
Second – motivation is an inferred concept that links a person’s internal conditions to external behaviour.
Third –motivation initiates, activates, or attains behaviour.
Fourth – motivation generates goal-directed behaviour.
Instinct Theory – organisms are born with a set of biologically based behaviour essential for the survival of the species.
Drive Theory – refers to the uncomfortable state of tension that moves an organism to meet biological need.
Arousal Theory – it is an activation of central nervous system, the autonomic nervous system, and the muscles and glands. It attempts to explain the link between behaviour and a state of arousal.
Incentive Theory – external stimuli trigger motives. The incentive value of stimulus is often learned – as in the case of money as an incentive for work or other condition reinforcers.
Incentive motivation - is being aroused by external stimuli.
Expectancy Theories – connect taught and motivation and are explanations of behavior that focus on people’s expectations of success in reaching a goal and their...
...Motivation and EmotionMotivation:
An emotion, desire, physiological need and or similar impulse that acts as an encouragement to action. Motivation is the driving force by which humans achieve their goals. It is an internal state that activates and gives direction to thoughts, feelings and action.
Types and Nature of Motives:
Internal desire to perform a particular task. For example, pleasure, mastery etc. Before to be intrinsically motivated, one must satisfy more basic human needs.
Desire to perform a particular task when factors are external. For example money, good grades.
There are further three categorizations of motivation:
• Homeostatic motives
• Biogenic motives
• Social Motives
The ability or tendency of an organism to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes. For example, Sweating when internal temperature becomes excessive and shivering to produce heat.
Homeostatic motives include hunger, thirst and respiration and these motives work to keep the body in balanced state and are caused by bodily deficiencies and excesses.
These are also called non-homeostatic motives. These are occasional and involve sex, curiosity about environment.
These are also called learned motives. These...
...paper will discuss motivation and emotion. More specifically, it will inspect motivation, motives and other associated hypothetical perceptions. The topic of emotions will also be discussed along with the elements and components related to it as well as some of the theoretical positions.
Motivation and EmotionsMotivationMotivation involves thinking about why some things are done. Some questions to consider for example include the reason that students attend class, the reason behind the murder of Abel by Cain, the reason that students study when they have tests to take, the reason instructors teach and quiz their students and the reason that an individual wears a particular outfit.
Every one of these questions has a particular answer and it involves a motive for participating in these activities. To completely understand this, motivation must be defined. According to Psychology Today, motivation is defined as “the desire to do things. It is the crucial element in setting and attaining a goal” (Psychology Today, 2014). It can also be defined as “something that causes a person to act in a certain way, do a certain thing. It could also be referred to as an incentive” (Merriam-Webster, 2014). The motivation method can be referred to as many different things. They include a belief, habit, desire, instinct, a drive...
1. What is motivation? There are three main types of theories on motivation (biological, psychosocial, and biopsychosocial theories). Describe each of these theories.
Motivation consists of a set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior and also influence goal-oriented behavior. It also accounts for the variability in people’s behaviors and performance. The first main type of motivation is biologicalmotivation. The first, biological motivation is composed of three parts, instinct, where motivation is resulted from innate, biological instincts, which are unlearned responses found usually in a whole species. Drive reduction, which is motivation that begins with a biological need that elicits a drive toward behavior that will satisfy the original need and restore homeostasis. The third part of biological motivation is optimal arousal where organisms are in a general state of alertness and are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal. it also involves activation of sympathetic nervous system.
The second type of motivation is psychological, and consists on incentive, which is when motivation results from an external stimuli that pull the organism a certain way, and cognitive, which has to do with attributions that explain the causes of behavior and how we interpret our...
...Motivation and EmotionMotivation is the drive that makes us do the things we do. The five approaches to motivation are instinct, drive-reduction, arousal, incentive, and cognitive. The instinct approach is the pattern of behavior that we are born with such as the need to survive, the need for reproduction, and the need to explore our territory. The drive-reduction approach is the drive to reduce a need, such as hunger, sleeping, and even the need to learn. Arousal approach suggests that everyone strives to maintain levels of stimulation and activity. The level widely varies from person to person, from high level arousal, such as skydiving, to nothing more than watching a scary movie. An example of the incentive approach would be if kids eat all of their dinner they may have a dessert afterward. By offering dessert, the kids will be motivated to finish their dinner. The cognitive approach suggests that students will study more to make a better grade. Intrinsic motivation is for oneâ€™s own enjoyment while extrinsic motivation is working to make money or studying longer for a good grade.
Emotions are feeling, both physiological and cognitive, that influence oneâ€™s behavior. The main two positive emotions are love and joy. The three main negative emotions are fear, anger, and sadness. One positive emotion for a student...