Does Claustrophobia cause people to deviate from confined areas? The independent variable is claustrophobia, and the dependent variable is the confined areas. Our hypothesis to this question is yes claustrophobia can be cured and reduced by cognitive behavioral therapy. The issue of claustrophobia is very important due to its impact on an individuals everyday life, since it affects a number of individuals throughout the world. A phobia is an anxiety disorder that is shown by an irrational fear of confined spaces. This phobia can cause a person to stay away form confined spaces such as a crowded store, sporting and social events, as well as elevators that could bring on this irrational fear. In society this can cause a person not to take part in certain events. This phobia can also lead to the interference with riding on public transportation such as a plane, train, bus or subway. In this our findings will be evident by the research provided. Each of these specific statements below, will help draw a conclusion about claustrophobia: 1) Fear of Restriction and Suffocation 2) The Reduction of Claustrophobia(Part 1) 3) The Reduction of Claustrophobia (Part 2) 4) Virtual Reality Treatment of Claustrophobia Claustrophobia 2 Fear of Restriction and Suffocation Claustrophobic fear is a combination of the fear of suffocation and the fear of confinement. The view on this topic is supported from the responses from a questionnaire done before, during, and after a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan was performed. Patients who successfully completed a MRI scan found they experienced fear of confinement not suffocation. These MRI scans were done in long narrow cylindrical chambers, which are dark and restrictive as well as noisy. Although you are not in a sealed chamber, you can literally see the light at the end of the tunnel. Some other chambers that were used in other experiments were enclosed, and restrictive which leads the patient to believe that there is the possibility of suffocation. This study was performed over a three-week period on an outpatient basis at two teaching hospitals. There were seventy-eight people involved in this study, twenty-three males, mean average 51.61 years (S.D.=20.0), as well as fifty-five females, mean age 45.67 years (S.D.=15.3). They collected research data on three different occasions using the F.S.S. (fear survey schedule) and the D.A.S.S. (depression, anxiety, and stress scale), one week prior to the MRI scan, the day of the MRI scan, and one month after the MRI scan. The patients who filled out a questionnaire one week prior to the MRI scan answered questions concerning the characteristics of depression, anxiety, stress, confinement and suffocation. The patients who filled out a questionnaire immediately after the MRI scan answered questions concerning their experience, did they complete or not complete the MRI scan, their willingness to undergo a further scan, and the history of previous MRI scans. Claustrophobia 3 The patients who filled out a questionnaire one month after the MRI scan filled out the same questionnaire as the one prior to the MRI scan. The results of this MRI scan study proved that patients who had failed to complete their MRI scan experienced an increase in the claustrophobic fear since they left during the MRI scan while their fears were high, which reinforced these patients from escaping from a similar situation in the future. It has been found that patients who have these MRI scans may develop conditions of anxiety such as claustrophobia and panic attacks. The patients who complete the MRI scan successfully reduced their fear of confined places in the future. It was also found that the patients exposed to a confined situation without the possibility of suffocation were only concerned with the fear on confinement, but had no effect on the fear of suffocation. To get the best results for the treatment of claustrophobia you need to...
The Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments of a Popular Phobia
Phobias have been a common part of the world since the beginning of time. As most people know, a phobia is “a special form of fear which… cannot be explained or reasoned away [and] is beyond voluntary control” (Marks 3). There are hundreds upon thousands of phobias in the world. However, one of the most common phobias is called claustrophobia. As most know and Ronald Doctor explains, “Claustrophobia is the fear of closed places, such as closets, subways, tunnels, telephone booths, elevators, small rooms, crowds, or other enclosed or confined spaces” (104). Claustrophobia has known symptoms, causes, and treatments.
Claustrophobia has known symptoms. Psychologists have found some common and some specific symptoms that go along with claustrophobia and its victims:
If a person suffering from claustrophobia suddenly finds themselves in an enclosed space, they may have an anxiety attack. Symptoms can include: Sweating, accelerated heart rate, hyperventilation… shaking, light-headedness, nausea, fainting, [and] fear of actual harm or illness (Better Health).
The common symptoms of claustrophobia are the same symptoms that one would get in the event of an anxiety attack. Nevertheless, there are also specific symptoms that go along with stronger...
December 1st, 2012
Mrs. U'Lawnda Lewis
ClaustrophobiaClaustrophobia is a fear or panic of being in a small space which involves emotional and physical reactions to triggering situations. This phobia could have developed in an individual either as a child being trapped in a small space playing a childhood game, or even as a young adult whom got stuck in an elevator. When these particular events happen, he or she accidently trap them self into a small confined room, this event can trigger a panic attack that programs the brain to feeling anxious.
Claustrophobia is a fairly mysterious disorder. It does not appear in the annals of medicine until the 1870s. A French physician working in Paris wrote of two people who reported feeling anxious when they were inside their apartments with the doors closed. These cases emerged when Paris was rapidly urbanizing more people were crowding into the city, and life was getting cramped. Shortly after these cases were written down, a similar case developed in a man who lived in New York just as that city was becoming more urbanized. Some theorists postulate that claustrophobia resulted from the rise of the modern city (Marsh, 2002).
Symptoms of claustrophobia are sweating, fast rapid...
...during the early 2nd century AD, possibly as early as the year 105 A.D., by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun, although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BC in China.
The modern pulp and paper industry is global, with China leading production and the United States behind it.To make pulp from wood, a chemical pulping process separates lignin from cellulose fibers. This is accomplished by dissolving lignin in a cooking liquor, so that it may be washed from the cellulose fibers. This preserves the length of the cellulose fibers. Paper made from chemical pulps are also known as wood-free papers–not to be confused with tree-free paper. This is because they do not contain lignin, which deteriorates over time. The pulp can also be bleached to produce white paper, but this consumes 5% of the fibers. Chemical pulping processes are not used to make paper made from cotton, which is already 90% cellulose.
The microscopic structure of paper: Micrograph of paper autofluorescing under ultraviolet illumination. The individual fibres in this sample are around 10 µm in diameter.
There are three main chemical pulping processes. The sulfite process dates back to the 1840s, and it was the dominant process before the second world war. The kraft process, invented in the 1870s and first used in the 1890s, is now the most commonly practiced strategy. One advantage is a chemical...
...as an irrational fear of something. Meaning there is no logical explanation as to why a person fearsthis. A phobia is not a mental disorder, nor is it an illness. It is simply a severe feeling of being afraid. There are five types of phobias including: A simple phobia, social phobias, panic phobias, and agoraphobias. Simple phobias are small fears that include heights, ladders, dogs etc. Complex phobias include being afraid of airplanes, car crashes, and train wrecks. Panic phobias consist of having a severe panic attack when you are unaware of what is taking place. Agoraphobia is the fear of open spaces. With this information in mind, you can categorize certain phobias. Specifically claustrophobia. This severe case of phobia would be classified under the complex phobia category. According to the Phobia Fear Release article, people tend to use the phrase “I’m claustrophobic”. This is the least bit correct. People tend to think that you’re claustrophobic when you don’t like being in small spaces. However claustrophobia is the fear of enclosed spaces. It has nothing to do with the enjoyment of the space. People who suffer from claustrophobia may experience symptoms in crawl spaces, small rooms, and crowds. Although claustrophobia is not an illness, it has similar medical...
Claustrophobia means ‘fear of suffocation or restriction’. It is typically classified as an anxiety disorder (mind well, it’s not a disease) and often results in panic attack (fast heartbeats n breathing, frightened, going crazy n many more are its symptoms—refer Wikipedia for more). Claustrophobia is designated as a situational phobia, because it is triggered by a certain situation.
People suffering fromthis are called Claustrophobics!
Fear of restriction:- Feeling (rather fear) of being confined to a single place- as in small rooms, locked rooms, cars, tunnels, cellars, elevators, subway trains, crowded places, caves, etc. They feel they might get stuck into it n wont be able to come out. Additionally, the fear of restriction can cause some claustrophobics to fear trivial matters such as sitting in a barber’s chair or waiting in line at a grocery store simply out of a fear of confinement to a single space.
Fear of suffocation:- Feeling they get when they r confined (real or imaginary). Even without going to anyplace like that, just the thought of it can also create panic n result in suffocation. They believe they will die with the lack of air!
The major difference between the two is, in d former they believe they would never be able to move out of place and hence start making efforts to...
...This paper is a review on survey method methodology in MIS and it also provide the assessment for MIS research using survey.
The first part of the paper defines survey research and discuss its application.
Difference between survey and survey research
In general, a survey is a means of gathering information about one or many certain characteristics, or opinion of a population.
A survey research is conducted to advance scientific knowledge ⇒ for research purpose
Produce quantitative results. The subjects may be individuals, groups, organization, or also may be projects, applications…
The main way of collecting information is by asking people structured and predefined questions
The sample is large enough to allow extensive statistical analyses
In order to best understand the application of survey method, we compare survey research with 2 other dominant methods in MIS: case studies and lab experiments.
Case studies involve the examination of a phenomenon in its natural setting. The researcher has no control over the phenomenon, but can control the scope and time of the examination
May not have clearly dependent and independent variables
Most appropriate when the researcher is interested in the relation between context and the phenomenon of interest.
Lab experiments involve examination of a phenomenon in a controlled settting....
...phases: aspirations development and alternative evaluation; options consideration; and evaluation of the remaining options and final decision making (Jackson, 1982).–––
Another research approach to choice and decision-making in higher education considers three different levels to student’s choice: global, national and curriculum level. First, the global level focuses on why students choose to study abroad. Student migration and study abroad has become a huge business matched by tremendous investment, especially among western countries. Zimmerman et al. (2000) has identified “push and pull” factors which operate along the students’ decision-making process in the global market. Dreher and Poutvaara (2005) have suggested that economic and cultural forces play an important role in shaping the international students migration markets. Second, the national level discusses the choice of higher education institution within countries. In Australia, for example, James et al. (1999) found that field of study preferences, course and institutional reputations, course entry scores, easy access to home and institutional characteristics significantly influenced applicants’ choice of institution. In addition, the teaching reputation of u niversities has been more important for college students in England than their research profiles (Price, et al., 2003). Foskett et al. (2006) found that students consider more carefully economic factors in times of distress...
...The feasibility of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as pesticide
This study aims to know if garlic (Allium sativum L.) is feasible in making pesticide. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is a species in the onion family alliacease. The leaves, stems and flowers (bulbils) on the head (spathe) are also edible and are most often consumed while immature and still tender.
In making the pesticide, the methods used are concentrating all the ingredients in making the pesticide. First, allow 3 ounces of finely chopped garlic to soak in 2 teaspoons of mineral oil for 24 hours. Add 1 pint of water and 1⁄4 ounce of liquid dish soap. Stir well and strain into a glass jar for storage. Upon making the spray, combine 1-2 tablespoons of concentrate in 1 pint of water to make the spray. Results showed that the pesticide produced is yellowish brown.
In testing and evaluating the effectiveness of the pesticide from garlic, the product was applied on bugs and observes after 10 minutes. After observing, the cockroaches were found dead.
Therefore, garlic is feasible in making pesticide. This pesticide cannot harm humans and it is environment friendly.
Background of the Study
Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family alliacease. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, and chive. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. It...