Dear Mr. Charles Darwin,
Greetings Mr. Charles Darwin! You are probably thinking, "Who in the name is this and what is with apparel?." Well my name is Tiffany and I came from the future! How I came from the future would be a different story but sir, I was handed a task to explain to you some amazing evidence after your research. Before I even start on explaining to you how people built information off your building blocks, let me explain what Mr. Mendel did. Mendel was a researcher on genetics that is corresponding with your time period . He was a monk that developed a theory on inheritance. He discovered it by breeding garden peas in carefully planned experiments. The reason why I brougtht this up is because of his Inheritance theory, which as you know can change the traits and characteristics by mating two different species. Which leads me back to evolution. One piece of evidence is physiological adatations. Physiological adaptations are changes in an organisms metabolic processes. for example if the bacteria we are testing is now penecillin resistt. Those changes are the evolution of the metabolic processes. the second evidence is fossils. Fossils are probably alwasys the main reason why we have a quantative amount of information regarding evolution because it actually shows the changes throughout different time periods. Usually bone structures says it all. The third evidence for evolution is homologous structures. Homologous structures are structures with common evolutionary origin. This would mean that a certain type of specie or species would have the same structure, same function, or both. Usually homologous structures have the same type of bone structure. Now moving on to analogous structures, which are structures that have no common origin but are similiar in function. an example would be a butterfly wing to an eagle's wing they help you fly but are different origins. So would Red Bull count? Ah! That is right, you don't know about Red Bull! Let's...
...UNIT 1 – LESSON 2 NOTES
Natural Selection and Evidence for Evolution:
The mechanism for evolution is called Natural Selection to distinguish it from Artificial Selection.
Evolution occurs at the population level because genetics don’t change. The frequencies of different genetic types (genotypes) within a population do change over time & can create new species.
There is genetic variation in all populations; some individuals are successful at surviving and finding resources & produce offspring sharing the same genotype as the parent.
Enough mutations are selected within the population to create new species.
Conditions needed for evolution to occur:
o Variation Within Population; differences in size, shape, physiology and reproductive abilities. Evolution requires variation within the population.
o Struggle for Existence (survival of the fittest); Darwin was influenced by Thomas Malthus—High birth rates and shortage of basic needs (food/shelter) forces organisms to compete for survival. The ability to survive in an environment is called fitness.
o Descent with Modification (ability of survivors to pass on their traits to the next generation); fitness traits must be heritable, species descended with changes from other species over time, appearing different from ancestors.
Natural selection occurs without human intervention, bringing changes in the inherited traits...
..."What is the evidence for evolution?"
When Darwin first introduced the idea of evolution through natural selection in his on the Origin of species (1859), he faced extensive doubt surrounding his ideas. This was mainly due to the fact that he did not have a substantial amount of knowledge on the idea of inheritance. Fast forward to the twentieth century when natural selection was explained through the use of Mendelian theories, the knowledge of genetics was finally beginning to form evidence for the evolutionary theory and therefore, has paved the way to modern evidence to support this theory.
In this essay I will explain the basis of the modern evidence to support evolution. However, in order to do this I must first explain what evolution really is; Evolution is the process by which different kinds of living organism are believed to have developed from earlier forms during the history of the earth, (Oxford Dictionary).
One piece of modern evidence used to support the idea of evolution is through fossil evidence. With today’s extensive fossil record, it can give us an idea of how a species has come about transforming from one species to another. In a sense, the evidence from fossil records are one of a kind for the fact it can indicate a time perspective for the evolution of...
...Evolution is the process by which all living things have developed from primitive organisms through changes occurring over billions of years, a process that includes all animals and plants. Exactly how evolution occurs is still a matter of debate, but there are many different theories and that it occurs is a scientific fact. Biologists agree that all living things come through a long history of changes shaped by physical and chemical processes that are still taking place. It is possible that all organisms can be traced back to the origin of Life from one celled organims. Human evolution is one of the most looked at aspects of anthropology. To figure out how humans can adapt and develop there are many aspects that must be looked at, these aspects of evolution are called lines evidence of evolution, which deal with the physical and biological aspects of humans. These lines of evidence are the main things that are studied in order to understand evolution. The lines of evidence that are to be reviewed in this paper are Comparative anatomy, biogeography, molecular evolution, and fossil evidence.
The first and line of evidence is the aspect of comparative anatomy. The study of comparative anatomy predates the modern study of evolution. Early evolutionary scientists like “Buffon and...
...Evolution is the study of how modern organisms have descended from the earliest life-forms and of the genetic, structural, and functional modifications of a population that occur from generation to generation. The ability of a population of organisms to respond to change in their environment and survive and reproduce by developing the characteristics or modifications necessary for survival is known as adaptation. Understanding how life evolves is a central concept in biology. The incredible diversity of living organisms that exists and their adaptations to their environment are the direct result of evolution that has occurred over very long periods of time.
Many scientists have contributed to our modern-day understanding of evolution. One of the early pioneers of evolution was the French biologist Jean Baptiste de Lamarck. Working in the early 1800s, Lamarck compared fossilized forms of invertebrate organisms and noted that younger fossils showed advanced structural characteristics compared with older fossils. Lamarck suggested that younger fossils displayed adaptations, or modifications of structures, that were indicative of an increase in an organism's complexity. He proposed that these modifications arose from the use or disuse of body parts. He also hypothesized that certain structural features developed in response to an organism's environment and that many of these acquired characteristics could be inherited...
...Evolution of Polar Bears
The observed fossil transitions that inform our knowledge of Polar Bear speciation are very well documented. Bear fossils change through time: generally, when examining the fossil record, successively deeper levels of sediments or sedimentary rocks yield successively older fossils. For some transitions from one species to another, one can find a well-characterized series of transitional specimens leading the observer across the species "boundaries" (Kurten, 1976).
Sometime during the mid-Pleistocene period (roughly 100,000 to 250,000 years ago), a number of brown(same as grizzly) bears (Ursos arctos) probably became isolated by glaciers. Many probably perished on the ice; however, they apparently did not all disappear. Some survived due to the fact that "organisms vary" (Gould, 1977); that is, every litter of grizzlies has a variation in coat thickness, coat color, etc., which imparted a slight evolutionary advantage to some individuals of each litter. Successive, successful individuals repeated this simple process, yielding a rapid series of evolutionary changes (driven, presumably, by the combination of small population, and extreme selection pressure) in order to survive. Note that these new variants were not necessarily "better" in any absolute sense, or on any absolute "bear" scale of perfection: they were simply more in keeping with their new environment than their immediate ancestors or their more unfortunate siblings....
...Evidence for evolution includes:
1. The oldest to newest fossils clearly demonstrate without exception an overall progression of life forms from basic to more complex. If there was no evolution there would be no progression of species complexity over time. There are species that have existed relatively unchanged for millions of years referred to as living fossils. This is not evidence against evolution, onlyevidence that the traits of those particular species have been very successful for survival over a long period of time.
2. Each continent and even groups of islands contain unique species of plants and animals. If there was no evolution, there would not be unique species on every continent as they would all be the same shared among them as when there was one supercontinent before the continents divided. Why are there species on Darwin’s Galapagos Islands unique to all other parts of the world? Why are there lemurs in Madagascar, but none in Africa?
3. Through artificial selection (human guided evolution) we have clearly demonstrated the ability to alter species of plants and animals in a short period of time. Even the evolution of bacteria has been clearly demonstrated.
4. Many skeletal and other similarities exist among animals that can be used to trace changes such as gills to lungs.
5. DNA is the common genetic instructions found in all...
...* Fossils- fossils provide evidence of evolution because related organisms have similar but varied bone structures. Carbon dating and radioisotopes allow scientists to find when the rocks and fossils lived, allowing them to see how the organisms changed over time and adapted to new environments.
* Embryology- many animals have an extremely similar embryological stage. Only trained professionals can tell the difference between the embryos of humans, fish, rabbits and birds. Only once the embryos grow and develop do they start varying in their appearance. This provides evidence of evolution because it shows how almost identical embryos turn into completely different organisms. The more similar the embryo, the more closely related the organism is.
* Comparative anatomy- states that organisms with similar structures must have come from a common ancestor. When two different species that have homologous structures, proves that they both evolved from the same species and adapted in order to survive.
* Geographical distribution- the theory different animals have different traits because of the environment where they live and are raised. This proves evolution because divergent evolution explains that when something happens to environment that threatens the species’ existence, they must all flee the area. The different areas have different effects on the species, causing it to...
...The Theory of Evolution
One of the greatest questions of all time is: "Where did we all come from?" One of the most popular answers to this question is creationism, the idea that everything was created by a higher being. Another popular idea is evolution, the idea that all living organisms descended from a less complex organism. Evolution possesses a new way of thinking that is being greatly accepted by the scientific community, but not by pious groups of people. Creation and evolution are diametrically opposed. This debate between religion and science has its origin from the time when Charles Darwin first published the theory of evolution in his controversial 1859 book On the Origin of Species.
Evolution is based on two underlying principles as suggested by renowned Charles Darwin: heredity and natural selection. Heredity is the principle that organisms pass on different combinations of their traits to their offspring. If an organism has strong traits that help it to survive, then its offsprings are likely to possess some of those same strong traits and be more likely to survive. The second principle is natural selection, better known as "survival of the fittest." According to natural selection, the organisms with strong, "fit" traits are more likely to survive long enough to reproduce than are the organisms with weak, "unfit" traits; thus over time, the strong organisms will...