In analyzing the ethics of marketing Publius, using the utilitarianism, rights, justice and caring ethics, we can gain a better knowledge of these examples within a particular case.
Utilitarianism is a general term for any view that holds that actions and policies should be evaluated on the basis of the benefits and costs in which they will impose on society. In this situation, it means that the "right" action or policy is the one that will produce the greatest benefits or lowest net costs. In the Publius case, it seems from the utilitarianism point of view that it would not be ethical to market Publius, as it may do more harm than good to society. Bruce Taylor, an anti-pornography activist, stated: "who wants to be more anonymous than criminals, terrorists, child molesters and pornographers, hackers and e-mail virus punks"?
Rights are the individual entitlements to freedom of choice and well-being. Rights protect interests such as free speech, freedom of religion and the right to education, at least in the U.S. In consideration of one's rights, it would be ethical to market Publius to people who might actually use the software for good. The creators of Publius hoped that their software would help people in countries where freedom of speech was not a right, and people were punished for speaking out. They said the ideal user of Publius was "a person in China observing abuses of human rights on a day to day basis". However, it seems to me that it would be hard to get such software in a country with such restricted internet access and general censorship due to it's own the government rules. Justice principles consider that the morally correct action is the one that produces a fair distribution of benefits and costs, good and harm. In other words, it looks at how burdens and benefits are distributed among people. A general fairness principle in justice is that people who are similar in relevant respects should be treated similarly, and...
...What is ethics and how should we approach it?
Ethics is defined as moral principles that govern a person’s behaviour or the conducting of an activity. This definition on its own does not tell us much about what ethics really is. If you try asking people what they think ethics is, you would also get many different answers. Just as in our ethics classes where different scenarios were put forward and we were required to evaluate the situation and take a stand based on what we believed, there were always opposing views. More interesting though, was the fact that even among the people in the same camp, the reasons that they based their decision on differed greatly.
The common approach
The three most common perceptions relate ethics to feelings and beliefs, following the law and what society accepts.
Feelings and beliefs
Our feelings and personal beliefs are probably the first things we consider when we come across a situation requiring us to make a choice. However, ethics is not the same as feelings and beliefs – that is, being ethical is not as clear cut as simply following one’s own feelings and beliefs. This is primarily due to the fact that feelings and beliefs are likely to be influenced by the environment we live in – our parents, our friends and our cultures, amongst others. Take for example a neglected child whose parents are criminals and are constantly committing...
The Study of Ethics for a Law Enforcement Career
Colorado Christian University
The Study of Ethics for a Law Enforcement Career
For someone who chooses to become a law enforcement officer he or she must understand the importance of having moral ethics standards in order to do the job effectively and professionally. Police officers are held by the public to a higher standard of morality and are expected to be above reproach. Sadly, we see in the news all to often police officers that have exhibited unethical conduct both on the job and in their private lives. When an officer commits an improper act of some type it impacts the entire law enforcement profession, in some cases it makes it hard for other officers to do their job without ridicule. Unfortunately, the public does not differentiate between officers, departments, or uniforms when a scandalous act occurs. The purpose for anyone pursuing a law enforcement career to study ethics is essential to keep the integrity and the trust of the public. A look into how and why officer should make ethical decisions, to examine the motives for the choices they make and see what is the influence that guides them to make the choices they do.
The Denver Police Department for example has the recruits in the police academy recite the police code of ethics every morning along with the...
...condition of the business and the quality of its personnel.
9. Scalar chain (Line of Authority). A hierarchy is necessary for unity of direction. But lateral communication is also fundamental, as long as superiors know that such communication is taking place. Scalar chain refers to the number of levels in the hierarchy from the ultimate authority to the lowest level in the organization. It should not be over-stretched and consist of too-many levels.
10. Order. Both material order and social order are necessary. The former minimizes lost time and useless handling of materials. The latter is achieved through organization and selection.
11. Equity. In running a business a ‘combination of kindliness and justice’ is needed. Treating employees well is important to achieve equity.
12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel. Employees work better if job security and career progress are assured to them. An insecure tenure and a high rate of employee turnover will affect the organization adversely.
13. Initiative. Allowing all personnel to show their initiative in some way is a source of strength for the organization. Even though it may well involve a sacrifice of ‘personal vanity’ on the part of many managers.
14. Esprit de Corps. Management must foster the morale of its employees. He further suggests that: “real talent is needed to coordinate effort, encourage keenness, use each person’s abilities, and reward each one’s merit...
...1. Shaw and Barry distinguish two different forms of utilitarianism. What are these two forms? Briefly describe each and use examples.
Two forms of utilitarianism are act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism. Act utilitarianism focuses on the consequences of individual actions and how those involved will be affected. The right course of action to take is the action that will produce the most overall happiness. An example of act utilitarianism would be whether or not to tell a patient they have a serious, life-threatening illness. Telling them would cause much unhappiness; therefore lying would be the right decision. While act utilitarianism concentrates on individual actions to maximize happiness, rule utilitarianism states that moral codes should be used. A set of moral codes would better distinguish what is right and what is wrong. The moral rules are used to produce overall happiness for society. This form of utilitarianism explains that we should utilize the optimal moral code to maximize happiness. The same example above can be applied to rule utilitarianism. The doctor would need to consider moral rules. As a doctor, what is morally right? In this case, telling the truth would be the right decision.
2. What do economists mean by the “declining marginal utility of money”?
The declining marginal utility of money means that as a person buys more with their income, the more dissatisfied they will be. If someone has more money, they will buy more things that...
September 15, 2012
MNGT 3100 - Dr. Johnson
“A Good Team Player”
1) Describe the Situation
Steven, a staff accountant in the accounts payable section, is confident that he knows the “ins” and “outs” of the bureaucratic organization he works in. Kristin, a no non-sense type of manager, has just been promoted the new manager of the accounts payable section. Steven believes people seem to gain promotions and have the opportunity to work overtime based on who likes them rather than the quality of their work. As a result, Steven who is dissatisfied suggests to Kristin that things would be better if the “favoritism” could be stopped. Kristin uses the power of her new position to get Steven to give her the names of the bad team players or else she will start to think he is part of the problem. Steven, stunned, cannot think of a way to respond.
2) Identify the possible courses of action.
There are three possible courses of action that I can take away from this situation. One situation involves Steven and the company, and one that involves Steven only.
1. The first would be for Steven to respond to Kristin’s demands and give her the names of the bad team players. By doing this, it would benefit himself in the long run and will allow the company to better their work force.
2. The second would be for Steven to refuse to go along with either of Kristin’s demands. Although this would not be beneficial for him...
...Torture and Ethics
April 13, 2013
University of Phoenix
Dr. Miron Gilbert
Torture and Ethics
The torturing of human life always has been and always will be unethical, immoral, unjust, and wrong. Torturing enemy combatants or high-value targets does violate standards of morality in the free world. In addition to violating international laws against such practices, torture violates every basic human right. Torture is a form of cruel and unusual punishment by any standard regardless of the end result. Torture of one individual is only justifiable by saving the lives of the many, but that does not make it moral or right. The only ethical theory that justifies torture as moral acceptable is the utilitarianism view. This view should remain in the dark ages where it belongs because it is not an example of the moral standards that exit today.
For some people, the thought of torturing one person to save the lives of many sounds like the right idea. The problem with torture is the end result is not guaranteed. Under extreme measures people will say whatever it takes to stop the pain. Torturing lowers the moral standards of the people performing the act to the same standards they are fighting against. In the long run this only fuels the enemy's commitment to their cause and makes them stronger. An enemy combatant who is considering volunteering information will not come forward if he or she thinks there is a possibility of...
...throughout the corporate world are faced with a multitude of decision making situations on a daily basis. Many of the resulting decisions are considered insignificant and relatively unimportant, while some due to their nature can result in situations where a net benefit or harm may be distributed or imposed upon the various stakeholders of a given organisation. These decisions often cause an ethical dilemma to arise and as such a great deal of consideration must be given to the course of action adopted by an organisation so as to insure an ethical and morally reconciled outcome is achieved.
Ethics by definition are the “inner-guiding moral principles, values and beliefs that people use to analyse and interpret a situation” (Waddell, Jones and George 2010, 145) before deciding “what is the ‘right’ or appropriate way to behave” (Waddell, Jones and George 2010, 145). This broad definition of ethics lends itself interpretation as such “no absolute or unvarying standard exists” (Waddell, Jones and George 2010, 145) to determine how a person should behave in any given situation. In the absence of clearly defined rules; managers must base their decisions on sound philosophical principles which are intended to promote and guide ethical decision making. There are three primary philosophical approaches to ethical decision making and each provides a slightly different yet complementary view in terms of defining the parameters of an ethical decision. The...
...Most of us would agree that it is ethics in practice that makes sense; just having it carefully drafted and redrafted in books may not serve the purpose. Of course all of us want businesses to be fair, clean and beneficial to the society. For that to happen, organizations need to abide by ethics or rule of law, engage themselves in fair practices and competition; all of which will benefit the consumer, the society and organization.
Primarily it is the individual, the consumer, the employee or the human social unit of the society who benefits from ethics. In addition ethics is important because of the following:
1. Satisfying Basic Human Needs: Being fair, honest and ethical is one the basic human needs. Every employee desires to be such himself and to work for an organization that is fair and ethical in its practices.
2. Creating Credibility: An organization that is believed to be driven by moral values is respected in the society even by those who may have no information about the working and the businesses or an organization. Infosys, for example is perceived as an organization for good corporate governance and social responsibility initiatives. This perception is held far and wide even by those who do not even know what business the organization is into.
3. Uniting People and Leadership: An...