Establishing Special Courts Catering to Human Trafficking Cases in the Philippines. (submitted as a term paper, 2nd term,SY 12-13)
Last 2012, Ms. Joy Ngozi Ezeilo, an envoy from the United Nations visited the Philippines to observe the situation of human trafficking in the country. Ms. Ezeilo stated that “the Philippines is undoubtedly a source country for human trafficking, and the problem is not declining.” One of the solutions she proposed to address the problem were special courts catering to human trafficking cases. (Reyes, 2012.)
Human trafficking thrives in poverty & lack of education, which are the main catalysts for individuals to be ushered into trafficking. (“An introduction to Human Trafficking”, 2008.) These are some of the problems the government is facing, and the two are very interconnected because they are the cause and effects of each other. Poverty leads to lack of education, and lack of education leads to poverty. The government is doing what they can to help minimize the issue, but they admit that it would take some time. (Sisante, 2008.) Education is a way to combat trafficking, due to the fact that education leads to decent employment, and a well-informed individual would be more aware of the dangers of being trafficked, thus preventing it to happen in his/her life. However, ideal this may sound, it is not possible to solve poverty and lack of education in a snap. There has to be other solutions to consider that could be done now and would have a great impact.
The establishment of special courts tackling specifically human trafficking-oriented cases is a practical solution that would greatly expedite the process of punishing human traffickers and by extension greatly reduce the number of cases of human trafficking in the Philippines, helping alleviate its social, economic, and political consequences.
Before special courts as a solution is to be discussed any further, it is important to define what a special court is. Specialized courts are defined by the International Journal for Court Administration as “tribunals of narrowly focused jurisdiction to which all cases that fall within that jurisdiction are routed.” (Zimmer, 2009)
The following paragraphs are going to discuss the counterarguments against special courts, and would be briefly refuted before the three main arguments in favor of special courts are presented.
The opposition may claim special courts as an unnecessary expenditure and inaccessible. They claim that it is unnecessary because the creation of new courts is onerous and constitutes unnecessary expenditures, particularly if cases are seasonal, and funds could go to waste if it remains idle. (Zimmer, 2009.) The creation of a court would automatically imply expenditures. The court has to pay for the administrative costs, the physical court, and other expenses needed to assist the victims, like court psychiatrists. It would also require effort on the judiciary, and the Supreme Court, due to the fact that special courts have to be set-up with care in order for its potential in eliminating cases to be maximized. (Zimmer, 2009) However, funding is not a strong argument, because the government has money. It is the proper allocation of the funds, or budgeting that is in question. The government has established special courts for environmental cases in 2008, 117 to be exact. (Salaveirra, 2008) If the government has placed effort enough to set up courts to save the environment, shouldn’t it be a priority to set up courts to fight for human trafficking victims, who have been robbed of their rights? Human rights should always be kept in the priority list of the government. Recently, it has been reported that the government is funding the Department of Health with 500 million pesos for contraceptives for the year 2013. One of their aims was to ‘combat poverty’. (Fernandez, 2012.) This shows that the government tries to prioritize the poor, however it just shows that they...
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The government increased anti-trafficking prevention activities during the reporting period. Government officials condemned humantrafficking in public statements and presentations, in addition to warning more than 250 students about the dangers of humantrafficking. Anti-trafficking flyers and materials were disseminated widely. The government also tightened issuance of exotic dancer permits to Jamaican hotel establishments, and eliminated their use in night clubs. Efforts to identify victims of trafficking among holders of these permits were intensified during the reporting period, and the government reduced the total number of permits to eight. Increased government collaboration with Jamaica’s hotel and tourism industry would assist efforts to prevent child sex tourism in resort areas; despite reported sexual exploitation of Jamaican children by foreign tourists, no investigations or prosecutions of such suspected criminal activity were reported by the government. The government made efforts to address demand for commercial sex acts by conducting high-profile raids on hotels and nightclubs.
The time has come for all nation states which are prepared to deal effectively with humantrafficking and the sexual exploitation of children and women to revisit the following...
“Couple sentenced in largest humantraffickingcases in Canadian history”
A Hungarian couple was arrested for being a part of one of the largest humantraffickingcases in the country. Joszef Domotor, 45 and his wife Kristina Csaszar, 33 were caught for trafficking of humans and their enslavement. Upon detainment they admitted to being involved in a criminal organization specializing in the enslavement and trafficking of humans. The organization recruited at least nineteen other victims from Hungary, promising them a better lifestyle and employment in Hamilton, ON. However, shortly after coming to Canada the victims were treated like slaves, physically and mentally abused, and given no pay. Also, their movements were controlled by the organization and were threatened into lying to immigration and welfare. The couple had lied their way into Canada and adopted the lifestyle of the wealthy. They kept “slaves” who cared for them and their children. Four “slaves” testified against them in court. Szalaine Ban and her husband Imre Szalai were brought to Canada under the wrong impression of employment and immigration for their children, which never happened. The court ordered to pay back the fifty thousand dollars that the defrauded from Ontario Works. Domotor was...
HumanTrafficking = Slavery
When the word ‘slavery’ comes to mind today most people think of it as something that was dealt with and halted decades ago. The stories are of a long and tragic historical event that involved the capture, exportation and exploitation of human beings as forced labor with no freedom of movement. Slavery brings to mind the forcible deportation of Africans into the new world, associated with colonization and empirical money making ventures in sugar, coffee, and cotton. Yet, the reality of the situation is that slavery exists today on an even larger scale than it did during the empirical era.
Humantrafficking is one of today's most horrific human rights violations. Traffickers prey on the most vulnerable members of society: people laden with poverty, struggling with disabilities and discrimination. Trafficking in persons refers to the illegal trade or "sale" of human beings for sexual exploitation or forced labor through abduction, the use or threat of force, deception and fraud. Due to globalization it knows no gender, race, age, nor boundaries. (Perkins)
Slavery today is masked by names like ‘humantrafficking’ and ‘undocumented immigration’ as well as many other less than pleasant names but it is still slavery where people are stripped of human dignity, choice, and human...
...Define what constitutes humantrafficking and what constitutes human smuggling by providing examples found in your course material. Sate why it is difficult to differentiate the two by discussing the Ng Case and by providing the facts of the case as well as the decision. Why is the case instrumental in the proceedings of humantrafficking? How has modern technology influence influenced humantrafficking and human smuggling?
There is often confusion between the terms humantrafficking and human smuggling as they both involve the transportation of people from one place to another. Also, both are considered serious offences and are punishable by Canadian law. These people who are being transported from one place to another also share something in common, and that is there structural ailments, social, economic and political issues which can make them more likely to want to move from their homeland. Some people come from countries under dictatorship and subscription, are or poverty stricken, and others are taken against there will. A commonality among all these people, is that they are either promised or expecting a better life. However, there are two key differences between trafficking and smuggling. First, trafficking involves exploitation of people...
What are the causes of humantrafficking? What policies should Governments implement to best prevent humantrafficking?
Humantrafficking is the fastest growing means by which people are forced into slavery. It affects every continent and most countries. Humantrafficking involves the movement of people through violence, deception or coercion for the purpose of forced labour, servitude or slavery-like practices. (Skrivánková, 2006).
Traffickers use violence, threats, and other forms of coercion to force their victims to work against their will. This includes controlling their freedom of movement, where and when they will work and what pay, if any, they will receive.
However, I obtained this article from the internet, using many search engine, and web-directory.
This essay will argue that humantrafficking is growing problem in the modern world.
First, it will examine the causes of humantrafficking. Then, it will explain some of the consequences of the humantrafficking. Finally, it will suggest some policies that governments should implement to best prevent humantrafficking.
What are the causes of humantrafficking?
...HumanTrafficking: A Transnational Problem
Humantrafficking is the world’s oldest form of slavery. Since biblical times, men, women and children have been sold across borders into slavery. Humantrafficking today is a growing business. Human rights groups estimate that the number of modern slaves exceeds that of the Atlantic slave trade in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (ProQuest Staff). In the modern world, globalization has made it easier to mobilize these victimized individuals. Humantrafficking is a recognized problem worldwide that is brought on for various reasons and the methods to end trafficking have, thus far, fallen short.
First, it is important to understand precisely what humantrafficking is. According to Diaz, humantrafficking is as follows:
“the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum,... the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor...
...HumanTraffickingHumantrafficking is an illegal trade in human beings for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor. Humantrafficking is modern form of slavery and is the second largest fastest growing criminal industry in the world and profits billions of dollars in business. After the drug trade humantrafficking is the second biggest organized crime in the world. Millions of victims are entrapped and exploited every year in this modern form of slavery. Humantrafficking is a crime that strips people of their rights, ruins their dreams, and robs them of their dignity. Humantrafficking is a global problem and an issue and has been growing since the 1700’s.
The Trafficking Victims Protection Act was created in 2000 (Polaris Project, n.d.). The Act is broken down into three parts which are prevention, protection, and prosecution. The prevention portion of the acts states that there needs to be an office set up within the state department which is monitor and combat the trafficking issue. It also makes a point to inform the public that humantrafficking is out there to prevent potential victims, and insist on the creation of a task force that was special trained to fight it (Polaris Project, n.d.)....
Academic English 12
Every year more than 2.5 million people are taken from their homes, their lives, to be sold into slavery (EXIT, 2011). HumanTrafficking is a crime against humanity. In 2003, Bush stated “Governments that tolerate the trade of humans, are tolerating a form of slavery.” Humantrafficking is often run by small scale and loosely linked brokers and traffickers (EXIT, 2011).Traffickers take away all basic human rights. Our basic needs and rights such as the freedom to move, to choose, to control our body and mind and to control our future are taken away. HumanTrafficking involves the acts of recruiting, transporting, transferring, harboring, or receiving a person through the use of force or coercion for the purpose of exploiting or using the person (UNODC, 2011).
Do not confuse trafficking with smuggling. Smugglers let the smuggled person go upon arrival, trafficked victims are enslaved (EXIT, 2011).Victims tend to be sold to prostitution/sex trafficking, forced servitude, or to drug rings. Sex trafficking is the largest individual sub category of international modern day slavery (EXIT, 2011).Sex trafficking is the process that delivers victims into prostitution. Prostitution and sex trafficking...