education. These institutions, with the exception of some notable ones, have however, not been able to maintain the high standards of education or keep pace with developments, especially in the fields of knowledge and technology. Over time, financial constraints with exploding enrolments, and a very high demand from primary and secondary education has led to the deterioration in the financial support provided by the Government. On top of this, an overall structure of myriad controls with a rigid bureaucracy has stifled its development. However, on the science and technology side, India has built up the largest stock of scientists, engineers and technicians. Since 1950-51, when there were only 2,63,000 students in all disciplines in 750 colleges affiliated to 30 universities, the growth of higher education in India has been phenomenal. Today, there are more than 11 million students in 17,000 colleges affiliated to 230 universities and non-affiliated university-level institutions. In addition, there are about 10 million students in over 6500 vocational institutions. The enrolment is growing at the rate of 5.1 per cent per year. However, of the Degree students only 5 per cent are enrolled into engineering courses, while an overall 20 per cent in sciences. The demand for professional courses is growing rapidly. Both public and private institutions operate simultaneously in India. Most of the growth in the rapidly expanding higher education sector took Place in private unaided college or in self-financing institutions with 42 Per cent of higher education institutions being privately owned and run. Since grant-in-aid to private colleges is becoming difficult, many universities have granted recognition/affiliation to unaided colleges. Some universities have also authorized new 'self-financing' courses even in government and aided colleges. As of today, more than 50 per cent of the higher education in India is imparted through private institutions, mostly unaided. All of...
...The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) is the statutory body and a national-level council for technical education, under Department of HigherEducation, Ministry of Human Resource Development. Established in November 1945 first as an advisory body and later on in 1987 given statutory status by an Act of Parliament, AICTE is responsible for proper planning and coordinated development of the technicaleducation and management education system in India. The AICTE accredits postgraduate and graduate programs under specific categories at Indian institutions as per its charter.
The AICTE Act of 1987
AICTE is vested with statutory authority for planning, formulation and maintenance of norms and standards, quality assurance through school accreditation, funding in priority areas, monitoring and evaluation, maintaining parity of certification and awards and ensuring coordinated and integrated development and management of technical education in the country as part of the AICTE Act No. 52 of 1987.
The AICTE Act, stated verbatim reads:
To provide for establishment of an All India council for Technical Education with a view to the proper planning and co-ordinated development of the technical education system throughout the country, the promotion of qualitative improvement of such...
...PRIVATIZATION OF HIGHEREDUCATION – S.Divya Abirami
Our university system is, in many parts, in a state of disrepair...In almost half the districts in the country, highereducation enrolments are abysmally low, almost two-third of our universities and 90 per cent of our colleges are rated as below average on quality parameters... I am concerned that in many states university appointments, including that of vice-chancellors, have been politicised and have become subject to caste and communal considerations, there are complaints of favouritism and corruption.
– Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in 20071
At the eve of liberalization, globalization and privatization, many changes are taking place in different spheres of Indian socio-economic life. These changes have affected all the sectors including education. Education is such a factor which affects all other sectors. So, it is important to observe the changes in education. Because of new economic policy privatization is welcome in India and also in education. Now private educational institutions are increasing day by day. This paper gives an overview of state of highereducation system in India & highlights the need for private sector to step up...
HigherEducation in India – Issues and Challenges
HigherEducation in India is improving gradually after Independence. It is in the second place in the world after United States. Some institutions of India, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs), Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), National Institute of Technology (NITs) and Jawaharlal Nehru University have been globally acclaimed for their standard of education. University Grants Commission (UGC) and the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), are two apex organisations that cater for the highereducation in India. The solutions for the below mentioned Issues, Challenges and Concerns of HigherEducation in India discussed in this paper would improve the status of Highereducation system in India.
Issues Challenges and Concerns dealt in this paper includes :
Autonomy of Universities, Access, Equity, Caste-based Reservation, Quality, Cost of Education, Declining Enrolment in Traditional Fields of Knowledge, Red Tapism, Vocationalization at the First Degree Level,Privatization and other Domestic Issues and Challenges of HigherEducation in India
...HigherEducation in the USA.
Finishing school is the beginning of an independent life for millions of school graduates. Many roads are open before them. But it is not an easy thing to choose a profession out of more than the 2000 existing in the world.
Out of the more than three million students who graduate from high school each year, about one million go on for “highereducation”. Simply by being admitted into one of the most respected universities in the United States, a high school graduate achieves a degree of success. A college at a leading university might receive applications from two percent of these high school graduates, and then accept only one out of every ten who apply. Successful applicants at such colleges are usually chosen on the basis of :
a) high school records;
b) recommendations from high school teachers;
c) the impression they make during interviews at the university;
d) their scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT);
The system of highereducation in the United States is complex. It comprises four categories of institution:
1. The university, which may contain:
- several colleges for undergraduate students seeking a bachelor’s four-year degree;
- one or more graduate schools for those continuing in specialized studies beyond the bachelor’s...
HigherEducation, or Higher Priced Education?
The Marriam-Webster online dictionary defines highereducation as “education beyond the secondary level; especially : education provided by a college or university.“ It's no secret to modern students that a highereducation is necessary to advance in their professional life. There is always a cost to advancement and that cost can sometimes create a glass ceiling that is difficult for people in certain social strata to break through. The rising cost of highereducation and its requirement for jobs creates a conflict for people in lower economic brackets. While the social value of highereducation is difficult to argue against, the problems associated with affording highereducation are very real social problems that must be considered.
In Western society we have goals we are expected to achieve. At a very early age we begin preparing our children for school. There is no law demanding that children attend a specific school, nor that upon entering adult life they pursue highereducation. Children can be home schooled or attend any school of their parents' choosing. However, having a degree of some kind gives one many advantages in America. One who possesses...
...This paper explores trends in highereducation in terms of Max Weber's theory of rationalization. It is Weber's contention that there are four basic motivators for human behavior. People are motivated by custom or tradition, by emotions, by religious or ethical values, and by rational goal oriented behavior (which Weber calls "zweckrational"). All human behavior, Weber claims, is motivated by various combinations of these four basic factors.
Weber's thesis is that bureaucracies increasingly centralize and broaden their scope in advanced industrial societies. Bureaucracies are human organizations specifically designed for the efficient achievement of short-term rational goals. As societies become more bureaucratic, Weber states, goal oriented rational behavior becomes dominant in guiding our actions--at the expense of traditions, emotions, and values. It becomes a habit of thought, a way of interpreting our world. This trend is called the "rationalization" process.
The final factor that should be understood in Weber's theory of rationalization is the phenomenon of the "irrationality factor." Just because an action is rational in terms of fulfillment of a short-term goal, Weber asserts, does not mean it is rational in terms of the whole society. It often happens, he writes, that an excessive focus on short-term goals undermines the very goals of both the society and the bureaucracies themselves.
In the past, higher...
...HEI’s in the
The typology is a system for classifying highereducation institutions that shall guide policy makers in rationalizing distribution and operation of highereducation institutions (HEIs) in the Philippines.
More particularly, typology is aimed at determining the number and distribution of different types of HEIs in the country as well as, per region and province; guide researchers, students, policy- or decision-makers in analyzing and making decisions regarding the highereducation sector; and provide basis for the rationalizing standards, for allocating resources and for targeting development interventions for different types of HEIs (Teodoro, 2010).
b. Discuss the guiding principles in the typology of HEIs in the Philippines as proposed by Dr. Bernardo?
Proposed typology of HigherEducation Institutions (HEIs) in the Philippines by Dr. Bernardo.
1. Research University
2. Specialized Research University
3. Teaching University
4. Specialized College
5. Associate College
According to Dr. Bernardo institutions of higher learning shall be classified on the basis of the following features:
1. Level of highereducation programs - to distinguish institutions that have the capability to offer highereducation programs beyond the...
...Education is fundamental to human progress. It plays a prominent role in all-around development of individual as well as society. A large number of books have been written on the importance of education. Education plays a key role in creating patriotic, disciplined and productive manpower.
Educated manpower constitutes precious assets as well as agents for advancing the nation. Education means the fostering of personality through the unhampered development of innate qualities of a human being. It aims at integrated development of personality.
In principle, education to the citizen is the responsibility of the State since India is a welfare State. It is an integral part of the social sector of the economy. It adds to the efficiency and productivity of human resources leading to sustainable economic growth. Its direct and indirect effects can be observed on the performance of economic sector and social sector of the country. The role of State is important in education sector for its vertical and horizontal growth.
Education system in India is similar to that of various other South Asian countries. It consists of three major components- general education, vocational and technical, which till liberalisation of economy were public domain, i.e. they were State’s responsibility class grading divided education system...