Arnab B Chowdhury
Founder and Knowledge Architect, Ninad Consultancy Services
ninad.in, [email protected]
When Technology Meets Health Care in
Aurosiksha: online learning platform for blindness prevention workers “Intelligence and capability are not enough. There must also be the joy of doing something beautiful. Being of service to God and humanity means going well beyond the sophistication of the best technology, to the humble demonstration of courtesy and compassion to each patient.”
- Dr. G Venkataswamy (Founder Chairman - Aravind Eye Care System) Abstract: This case study (
aurosiksha.org) is about two great
movements one in Technology (the FOSS)
and the other in Health Care - the Aravind
Eye Care Systems (AECS) and LAICO that
trains blindness prevention workers. At
the conﬂuence of the two is an eLearning
platform called Aurosiksha, which is
based on Moodle. Aurosiksha seeks to
reach out to the global user, share its rich
knowledge base, and in the process create
a community of lifelong learners.
Keywords: FOSS, ICT, LMS, MOODLE,
mLearning, Mobile Moodle, AECS,
Aravind, Aravind Eye Care System,
Vision 2020, WHO, LAICO, Aurosiksha,
eLearning Platform, knowledge society,
social health care.
As we all know, the Free and Open Source
Software (FOSS) movement began as
a renegade call to what was felt to be
increasing restrictions on collaborative
development, distribution, and ownership
of software. Free software focuses on
the philosophical freedoms (a matter of
liberty rather than price) it gives to users,
whereas open-source software focuses
on the perceived strengths of its peer-topeer development model. Openness, coownership, and transparent collaboration continue to drive the FOSS movement.
Development, modiﬁcation, ownership,
and redistribution of software could now
be cohesively managed by communities
of like-minded developers. This also led
to an evolutionary model of copyright
and licensing (GPL) ensuring community
The FOSS movement has evolved
from the stages of philosophy and licensing
into a complex and pragmatic ecosystem
for software production and distribution
beneﬁting humanity globally. FOSS has
introduced technological self-reliance,
efficient use and sharing of resources, and
C SI Communications | June 2012 | 12
collaborative innovation and development.
One of the most signiﬁcant areas where the
FOSS movement has made strides is in the
ﬁeld of education. During the past decade,
education has been rapidly reorganized to
leverage information and communication
technology (ICT) within the classic
At the foundation of FOSS is a desire
for an equitable and open model of access
If one of the aims of FOSS technologies
is dissemination of educational content,
then Aurosiksha is a case in point.
Aurosiksha is an online learning
management system (LMS). An initiative
launched recently (25th July, 2011) in its
beta version by Lions Aravind Institute
of Community Ophthalmology (LAICO),
established in 1992 with the support of
the Lions Club International, SightFirst
Program, and Seva Sight Program.
LAICO is Asia's ﬁrst international
training facility for the broad range
of blindness prevention workers from
India and other parts of the world. It
contributes in improving the quality of eye
care services through teaching, training,
capacity building, advocacy, research,
and management consultancy. It offers
university-affiliated long-term courses
in Eye Care Management, with eye care
management programs for directors of
eye hospitals, program managers, as well
as several skill development courses in
the areas of instrument maintenance,
marketing, counseling in India, Africa,
and South East Asia.
LAICO accomplishes this objective
within the broader...
... “DO YOU THINK THAT BARACK OBAMA IS A GOOD PRESIDENT? WHY OR WHY NOT?”
Barack Obama has been considered one of the black people most influential in the world in addition, he became the first black people president of United States of America and he has been in the eyes of much countries in especial countries from South America however, it has many questions like if it is a good or a bad president for USA and to the world, by the way how governs their country, but for me he is a bad president for the USA.
First of all Barack Obama received support of immigrants for returned to the White House however, he deported more undocumented immigrants than other presidents since 1950s in your first term.
Secondly he must find a way to improve relationships with countries that don’t have good relationships. For example, Venezuela that nowadays has a new president.
Finally the Drugs war is a battle that don´t have end because USA is the main country into consume all type of drugs.
In conclusion Barack Obama in many countries is known as a bad president by the form how he assumed the role of global leader however, many people in USA thinks that the way of govern is good whereas I think that by the statistics shown in this paragraph, he is a bad president and a lousy leader for the world.
When elections for presidents started in the USA, Obama and Romney were the leading candidates to fill this important role...
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In the the next few years, social media market begins to change. there is increasing number of social media tools and a rapidly growing user base across all demographics. In the run-up to the 2012 presidential election, there was lots of deliberation about the potential impact of social media this time around. In 2008, McCain’s campaign was as social-media-deaf as Obama’s was social-media-savvy. Kennedy was the first president who really understood television, Obama is the first social media president. In 2012, Obama not only had the skillfulness and knowledge on his team, he had an established social media machine up and running. Since social media is about listening and building relationships, having a running start building those connections was an added...
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In one part of his speech he addresses that “We will never be able to come together and solve challenges like health care, or education, or the need to find good jobs for every American”(6). With this he is speaking towards the white community and Americans. He is explaining that if America doesn’t put it behind; Then America would never look at what’s better for the world and since the community is mainly surround by whites’ than his audience must be towards them. Obama states how white communities struggle in life and have…”anger exists within segments of the white community, most working-and middle-class white Americans don’t feel that they have been particularly privileged by their race”(8). He also admits that this is a fact; Therefore many...
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Born on January 17, 1964, Michelle Robinson was raised in a one-bedroom apartment on Chicago's South Shore.
Of note is that she shared a "bedroom" with her brother, but it wasn't much of a bedroom. It was actually the living room with a divider down the middle. Michelle's father died in 1990 two years before she married Barack, but her mother is still alive and living in the same one-bedroom apartment, protected by a burglar-proof wrought-iron door and secured windows.
After high school Michelle Robinson majored in sociology at Princeton University, graduating with cum laude honors in 1985. From there she attended Harvard where she earned her law degree in 1988, one year ahead of her husband-to-be, Barack, whom she hadn't met yet but attended the same law school.
* MICHELLE AND BARACK MEET
After graduating from Harvard, Michelle accepted a position at a downtown Chicago law firm. In 1989 she was asked to mentor a summer associate from Harvard name Barack Obama. According to reports, Barack didn't have much interest in corporate law, but did have a lot of interest in Michelle.
Apparently Michelle Robinson initially brushed off advances from Barack because they were working at same firm...and he was an intern and she higher up the law firm's foodchain as an associate. But love prevailed and they were married on October 18, 1992.
Interestingly Barack and Michelle waited almost seven years...
... Hawaii, Barack Obama is the 44th and current president of the United States. He was a civil-rights lawyer and teacher before pursuing a political career. He was elected to the Illinois State Senate in 1996, serving from 1997 to 2004. He w as elected to the U.S. presidency in 2008,
and won re-election in 2012 against Republican challenger Mitt Romney. President Obama continues to enact policy changes in response to the issues of health care and economic crisis.
Barack Hussein Obama was born on August 4, 1961, in Honolulu, Hawaii. His mother, Ann Dunham, In 1965, married Lolo Soetoro, an East–West Center student from Indonesia. at the age of 10, Barack was sent back to Hawaii to live with his maternal grandparents.
Excelling in School
While living with his grandparents, Obama enrolled in the esteemed Punahou Academy, excelling in basketball and graduating with academic honors in 1979. As one of only three black students at the school, Obama became conscious of racism and what it meant to be African-American. He later described how he struggled to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage with his own sense of self: "I began to notice there was nobody like me in the Sears, Roebuck Christmas catalog ... and that Santa was a white man," he said. "I went to the bathroom and stood in front of the mirror with all my senses and limbs seemingly intact, looking the way I had always...
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Page FS Note
1 For 2007 was there a foreign Currency translation adjustment? (circle one) Yes No 46 S of SE
2 Did the adjustment cause a Decrease or Increase in S/E for 2007? (circle one) Increase Decrease
3 For 2007, and in association with the 2004-2007 Restructuring Program, (Note 17)
of the 662 m charged to continuing operations, how much was recorded in CGS? _____________
4 In 2007, were any new common shares issued? (circle One) Yes No
5 In 2006, what was amount of cash paid in dividends to CS holders? (in millions) _____________
6 For 2007, 06 or 05, what was the lowest Operating Expense common size per cent? _____________ (xx.x %)
7 For the calculation of Basic EPS in 2005 what number of shares was used? (million)_____________
8 What were the Cash Dividends declared per Share in 2006? _____________
9 In 2007 for the Film Products Group, what was its operating profit per cent? _____________(xx.x %)
10 What are Gross Trade Receivables at the end of 2007? (in millions) _____________
[For 10 & 11 assume all allowances apply to trade receivables]
11 What per cent of Gross Trade Accounts Receivable is uncollectable at end of 2007? _____________( x.xx%)
12 What was the average price paid for EK’s issued common stock as of Dec...