Over the last thirty years, the legal status of women in Europe has undoubtedly improved, but effective equality is far from being a reality. Women are still marginalised in political and public life, paid less for work of equal value, find themselves victims of poverty and unemployment more often than men, and are more frequently subjected to violence. The Council of Europe has taken steps at different levels in order to promote equality between women and men. While the European Convention on Human Rights does not include equality between women and men as a general principle, it does, under Article 14, prohibit any "distinction" based, inter alia, on grounds of sex, in relation to the rights protected. Furthermore, the principle of equality between spouses with regard to their rights and responsibilities in marriage has been added to the Convention in Protocol No. 7. However, the inclusion in the Convention of a fundamental right of women and men to equality continues to be called for, not least by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, and the matter is under consideration at the intergovernmental level.
The European Social Charter provides a number of specific rights for women, namely equal remuneration, protection of mothers and working women and the social and economic protection of women and children. The Additional Protocol of 1988 included the right to equal opportunities and treatment with regard to employment and careers, without discrimination based on sex. Furthermore, the revised Social Charter contains a specific non-discrimination clause on a variety of grounds, one of which is sex.
Apart from these legal instruments the Council of Europe is committed to a whole range of other measures and activities to promote equality between women and men.
A declaration by the Committee of Ministers in 1988 gave new impetus to this work. It affirmed that equality was an integral part of human rights and that the eradication of sex-related...
...Parity betweenMen and Women in France
Nowadays, French society observes various inequalities. They can sometimes appear legitimate, especially in the economic and social areas, because they would only result from the individuals’ aptitudes and efforts; that would start with the same equal opportunities. However, women are becoming more and more recognized by the French population, which in turn, gives them increasing respect and responsibilities. However, we can still wonder if women, since they are the main subject, play the same roles in French society as men. Are these inequalities the result of an intense research of efficiency, and thus necessary? In other words, is parity just an ideal that does not guarantee an optimal management of the French society, or just a demand that would restore social justice between male and female while benefit to the efficiency? In order to answer these questions, we will first address the issue of parity within the school system, then within the job market, and finally study parity within politics in France before we take a look at the French Government’s plan to create more equality. We will first look at a brief chronology of the women’s right in France will help us understand the evolution of this parity.
To begin, one should know that in most civilizations, women have played a minor role in politics...
...Sociology of Women
October 18th, 2012
Are men and women more similar or different from each other? What are the strengths and weaknesses of each position? If not a gender dichotomy (male/female), then what? Can we unlearn, as a culture, the ins and outs of gender?
Is gender a question of exclusion or is it a question of difference?
Women and Men are more similar than people believe them to be. People focus on the evident physical differences we see on a daily basis in men and women. Women are commonly described to have breasts, a vagina, and are considered more “voluptuous” or curvy than men, Whereas men are known for their manly tools, their penis, and all the preconceived social and cultural notions that go along with that. However, aside from these minor physical differences men and women are innately the same.
Although most people do not realize this, the only legitimate difference that is scientifically proven betweenmen and women is that a woman’s body contains two X chromosomes and a man’s contains an X and Y chromosome (Connell, 2012, pg. 51). This biological difference then allows a woman’s body to develop slightly differently to enable reproduction, such as a womb, breasts, and wider pelvis. A man then develops testes but surprisingly...
Differences betweenMen and Women
For centuries, the differences betweenmen and women were socially defined through a lens of sexism, in which men assumed to be superior over women. The vision of equalitybetween the sexes has narrowed the possibilities for discovery of what truly exists within a man and women. The world would be less interesting when everything is the same. Today none of us would argue that men and women are physically different, but they differ emotionally, and mentally.
The physical differences are rather obvious and most of these can be seen and easily measured such as Weight, shape, and size. There are many physical differences that are not noticeable. Men are 3o percent stronger especially in upper body strength. On the other hand, women have greater body fat percentages because women have children. No matter how strong men are they will never be able to handle child birth. Men build muscle easily, they have thicker oilier skin, they bruise less easily, and have a lower ability of injuries to their extremities. Men and women have different hormone levels such as testosterone, while women have a higher concentration of estrogens. Testosterone is...
...Relationship betweenMen and women
Relationship between woman and men is multisided as well as quite complex and. In this relationship there might be love, as well as unleashed passion, make individuals life bright, full of emotions and impressions.
In this story the beautiful relations ship of men and women described, in this story the narrator of the story Edgar Allan Poe describes the prettiness beauty as well as attractiveness of her wife, Ligeia the name of the narrator's wife, in this story there is a description of her beauties, Ligeia was a slender and tall with pale skin and long black hair, in this story there is a description that both husband and wife was enjoying their life in a very romantic and beautiful manner, unfortunately wife passed away, she left her loving husband alone and left the world for ever, his husband became said because he loss his beautiful tall and slender loving wife for ever, he loved her wife a lot, when she left him alone and passed away his heart broken-down, he felt discomfort, the reason of his discomfort was the his beautiful relationship with his lovely wife, he supposed that he can relaxed form his discomfort ness, if he create new relationship with another women, therefore after the passage of time he married again but the question raise here that either it is possible that, a man...
...What is the difference between males and females? We notice the different dressing styles, different roles in the workplace and how we spend our leisure time, how we wear our emotions, and also how differently we think. But a question arises. Are males and females really different in every aspect? The first question we ask when a baby is born is: "Is it a boy or a girl?" Though most people accept most of the socially prescribed roles for the gender they were born with, some struggle against what they see as rigid and arbitrary social norms. In this essay, I will describe and give my input on the roles of human sexuality and gender.
Most people think of sex and gender as one and the same when in fact they are not. Wood, Wood, and Boyd (2005) define sex as "a biological term, while gender is more commonly used to refer to the psychological and social variables associated with one's sex" (p. 410). In the biological approach, when defining the sociocultural characteristics of masculinity and femininity, cultures look into the behaviors each gender should act upon. Males should be the dominant figure. They should be strong, competitive, be able to stand their ground, confident, and independent. Women on the other had are expected to be the exact opposite. They should be dependent, caring, encouraging, emotional, and nurturing. As children approach the age of two or so, they start to realize the roles such as attitudes, interest, and behaviors, in...
...whether empirically grounded or socially constructed. (On differences between the sexes, see Sex and psychology.)
Wage discrimination exists when workers are equally qualified and perform the same work but one group of workers is paid more than another. Historically, wage discrimination has favored men over similarly qualified women.
Income disparity between genders stems from processes that determine the quality of jobs and earnings associated with jobs.[clarification needed] Earnings associated with jobs will cause income inequality to take form in the placement of individuals into particular jobs through individual qualifications or stereotypical norms. Placement of men or women into particular job categories can be supported through the human capital theories of qualifications of individuals or abilities associated with biological differences in men and women. Conversely, the placement of men or women into separate job categories is argued to be caused by social status groups who desire to keep their position through the placement of those in lower statuses to lower paying positions.
Human capital theories refer to the education, knowledge, training, experience, or skill of a person which makes them potentially valuable to an employer. This has historically been understood as a cause...
...Men and Women in society
Well obviously, men and women are different. In society however men and women play very different roles. Used to be, men were looked at as the dominant one in a relationship and society. Now a day women are becoming dominant in more ways than one. For example, in the job world, government, relationships, freedom, and sex are just some of the categories that women have risen in, in society. More women are in positions of power and authority. Even though, because of the past, men and women will never be treated the same, in society mostly men and women are treated fairly equal. There is little to no discrimination in the job field or the government against women in society. Men are still usually looked at as a higher class than women but that is just because of the past events that have happened in society. The world is becoming an all-around equal place.
The history of women in the American labor force has been shaped by diverse cultural, legal, demographic, and ethno-racial influences. Like men, women in preindustrial America contributed to their household and community economies through paid and unpaid labor, but the material rewards of their labor were limited by...
...What is the difference between being fair and being equal? In our society, do people have an equal or fair shot?
Equality is a recurring theme throughout history. It came up during the late nineteenth century and in the early twentieth century due to the introduction of the women suffrage acts. Those acts lead up to the nineteenth amendment in 1920 which included “The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex” then again, in the 1960s where the Civil Rights movement peaked. Civil Rights Activists want equal rights no matter the race, gender, or sexuality. However, none of these movements include the rights of the lower class, yet lower class people feel as though they aren’t “equal” but are they perhaps using equal as a word for fair?
In history, equality was a word used to describe the basic rights of living. All women should be able to vote. All African Americans should have the right to eat at whatever restaurant they want, but now equal has become a word used to describe money and opportunity. Is it only fair to give money to the needy or do we give it to them to make them equal? Stanley Fish, a professor of humanities and law at Florida International University, in Miami, and dean emeritus of the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences at the University of Illinois at Chicago. wrote an article about...