Enhancing Higher Education Opportunities for Educationally Disadvantaged Secondary Students: a cross-sectoral partnership Deborah Tranter Senior Project Officer: Equity University of South Australia Abstract: For many students from low socio-economic backgrounds, university is an alien and inaccessible notion, as far removed from them conceptually as it often is geographically. It is becoming increasingly difficult for students from the most disadvantaged regions of Australia to bridge the divide and gain admission to higher education. This paper will discuss a range of initiatives developed by the University of South Australia, in collaboration with the S. A. Education Department, to help increase the access of students from disadvantaged schools. These initiatives include: USANET: an outreach and access scheme for year 12 students from schools designated as disadvantaged by the Education Department. UniSA-PAL: a preparatory program coordinated and moderated by UniSA staff but taught to adult year 12 students by Education Department staff at five adult secondary colleges in Adelaide. Portfolio Entry: a trial alternative entry scheme for year 12 students (both continuing and adult reentry) from13 of the most educationally disadvantaged schools in the state University Orientation Program/peer mentoring: an initiative which combines a semester-length elective subject on peer mentoring for UniSA students with an ‘introduction to university’ option for year 11 students from the socio-economically disadvantaged northern suburbs of Adelaide. The paper will draw on research undertaken as part of my doctoral studies into the influence of the school environment on students’ aspirations to higher education as well as evaluations undertaken of the initiatives above and research undertaken elsewhere. Introduction The University of South Australia has a well-established commitment to equity and a national reputation for innovative practices in the area. In particular, the University is concerned about increasing the higher education participation rates of people from the northern suburbs of Adelaide, a region with the third lowest participation rates in the country (Stevenson, Maclachlan and Karmel, 1999). This paper aims to share information about a number of strategies the University has developed in collaboration with the SA Department of Education and Children’s Services (DECS) which focus on increasing university participation rates for students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and the northern suburbs in particular. Low Socio-economic Participation The benefits of higher education to the individual have been well documented in terms of increased employment rates, higher average salaries, increased social status and overall economic security (Anderson and Vervoorn, 1983; Williams et al, 1993; James et al, 1999; Borland, 2002). In addition, the overall benefit to Australia’s social fabric of increased participation in higher education has been acknowledged by policy developers for some years (Dawkins, 1988, NBEET/HEC, 1996, Nelson, 2002). A diverse higher education student population has broader outcomes with society ‘… more economically and culturally productive because (they) use and extend the talents of all’ (Nunan,
George & McCausland 2000a: 86). Nevertheless, in Australia today we see a significant disparity in higher education participation, very much determined by who one’s parents are, where one lives and where one goes to school. Young people from low socio-economic backgrounds have about half as much chance, on average, of completing school, proceeding to university or TAFE, and graduating with a degree or diploma, as those from backgrounds of high socio-economic status (DETYA, 1999; James 2002). In the northern suburbs of Adelaide, however, we have amongst the lowest rates of higher education participation in Australia (Stevenson, Maclachlan and Karmel, 1999). As the table below indicates, people living in...
HigherEducation, or Higher Priced Education?
The Marriam-Webster online dictionary defines highereducation as “education beyond the secondary level; especially : education provided by a college or university.“ It's no secret to modern students that a highereducation is necessary to advance in their professional life. There is always a cost to advancement and that cost can sometimes create a glass ceiling that is difficult for people in certain social strata to break through. The rising cost of highereducation and its requirement for jobs creates a conflict for people in lower economic brackets. While the social value of highereducation is difficult to argue against, the problems associated with affording highereducation are very real social problems that must be considered.
In Western society we have goals we are expected to achieve. At a very early age we begin preparing our children for school. There is no law demanding that children attend a specific school, nor that upon entering adult life they pursue highereducation. Children can be home schooled or attend any school of their parents' choosing. However, having a degree of some kind gives one many advantages...
Highereducation in the present world has a very long history. Highereducation has deep roots in the early sixth century when first monastic schools were started in Europe which later developed to the famous European university in Bologna during the period between 1088 and 1090. This is the origin of highereducation with all present systems of highereducation borrowing much from this first intuition and system of highereducation. Until early 20th century, highereducation institutions and particularly universities and high level colleges catered only for the elites in the society. Though in this time basic education was enough to secure an individual a well-paying job, the costs of securing a place in the institutions of highereducation as well as maintaining the costs for the period of a given course locked out the middle income earners as well as the poor. Statistically, by the start of 20th century, 3 per cent of the world population had enrolled in universities and other colleges offering highereducation programs. This number was much concentrated in the European continent...
...CHALLENGES FOR ADULT STUDENTS IN FOSTERING EDUCATIONHighereducation continues to change, particularly in terms of the student body. In the past, colleges and universities were often populated by recent high school graduates who were training for their first jobs. Today, the highereducation institution includes people in just about every phase of life. No longer are people expected to stay in the same vocational field, and schools are increasingly gearing their programs and services to older learners who are interested in new fields, career changes, and simply learning about unique subjects. Of course, it can be a bumpy road for some adults, particularly if they have not been in school for quite some time. While some of these adults may be confident when it comes to professional skills, it can be an intimidating experience to step onto a college campus. With that in mind, here are a few of the major challenges that are sometimes experienced by adult learners.
The first challenged has something to do with time and energy, and how it is prioritized. The job or the family takes too much energy and the person does not intend to use the free time left on learning activities. We call this category "lack of time and/or energy". At first sight, this factor falls well into Cross (1981) and Darkenwald & Merriam (1982) situational barriers, that is barriers related to...
...The Role of Student Personnel in HigherEducation: The Development, Guidelines, and Overview of Student Services
Student personnel in highereducation play an important role in the overall success of the college and that of each and every student who engages in learning at that institution. The role of the student affairs office is undoubtedly one of the most diligent areas the college or university has. As history teaches us, almost all institutions have prided themselves on a strong foundation of quality education and academic success stemmed from principles which tie the college or university to student’s individual academic success. The overall goal of the student affairs office is linked to the overall goal and founded to support the academic mission of the college. About student services, the book states that it is the “consistent and persistent emphasis on and commitment to the development of the whole person.” (Komives, Dudley, & Assoc. 2003) We must consider that the comprehensive approach of each institution is lead by the student affairs personnel’s continuous commitment to encourage, support, and strengthen all students’ academic success.
The field of student affairs arose from a variety of strands of college work. One strand emerged from the...
...education. These institutions, with the exception of some notable ones, have however, not been able to maintain the high standards of education or keep pace with developments, especially in the fields of knowledge and technology.
Over time, financial constraints with exploding enrolments, and a very high demand from primary and secondaryeducation has led to the deterioration in the financial support provided by the Government. On top of this, an overall structure of myriad controls with a rigid bureaucracy has stifled its development. However, on the science and technology side, India has built up the largest stock of scientists, engineers and technicians.
Since 1950-51, when there were only 2,63,000 students in all disciplines in 750 colleges affiliated to 30 universities, the growth of highereducation in India has been phenomenal. Today, there are more than 11 million students in 17,000 colleges affiliated to 230 universities and non-affiliated university-level institutions. In addition, there are about 10 million students in over 6500 vocational institutions. The enrolment is growing at the rate of 5.1 per cent per year. However, of the Degree students only 5 per cent are enrolled into engineering courses, while an overall 20 per cent in sciences. The demand for professional courses is growing rapidly.
Both public and private...
...Economics for Business
Should highereducation be free to students?
University education has become a major hot topic recently as governments have struggled to find the funds for universities. Therefore, there have been many debates raised of what the best way to fund university education is and whether it should be free or not. Firstly, we will start by going over why tuition fees were actually introduced. The idea began in the labour party manifesto in 1997 when Education was known to be the biggest priority as Tony Blair called for ‘Education, Education and Education’. Tuition fees were all paid by the governments before and many more grants were given out. However, throughout the years the government had lost the money and had no income to be able to pay for university education so therefore top-up-fees started. This was a way in which universities can charge fees for whatever price they wish. When labour came to power in 1997, there were no fees but there were only means-tested maintenance grants. But after one year grants were no longer available and a means-tested fee regime of £1,000 a year was introduced. In 2004 the highereducation bill brought in top-up fees of up to £3,000. The tuition fee limit has remained at about £3,000 up to now and there are current plans and proposals to increase the...
...Education Issues: Student’s Book (2013)
Unit 1: Education for Life
TASK 1. Answer the questions below.
1. What comes to mind when you hear the word ‘education’?
2. What is a good education, in your opinion?
3. How important do you think education is?
4. Do you think the quality of education in the world in general and in your country in particular is slipping down or going up?
5. In which country do you think you can receive the best education?
TASK 2. Read though the quotations below and tell the class how far you agree with them.
1. It is possible to store the mind with a million facts and still be entirely uneducated. (Alec Bourne, 1886 – 1974, a British writer
2. Education is what survives when what has been learned has been forgotten. (B. F. Skinner, 1904 - 1990, an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher)
3. Only the educated are free. (Epictetus, 55 AD - 135 AD, a Greek and Stoic philosopher)
4. You educate a man; you educate a man. You educate a woman; you educate a generation. (Brigham Young, an American religious, state and educational leader)
5. Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. (Nelson Mandela, a South African anti-apartheid activist, revolutionary and politician)
6. Education: the path from cocky...
...HigherEducation in the USA.
Finishing school is the beginning of an independent life for millions of school graduates. Many roads are open before them. But it is not an easy thing to choose a profession out of more than the 2000 existing in the world.
Out of the more than three million students who graduate from high school each year, about one million go on for “highereducation”. Simply by being admitted into one of the most respected universities in the United States, a high school graduate achieves a degree of success. A college at a leading university might receive applications from two percent of these high school graduates, and then accept only one out of every ten who apply. Successful applicants at such colleges are usually chosen on the basis of :
a) high school records;
b) recommendations from high school teachers;
c) the impression they make during interviews at the university;
d) their scores on the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT);
The system of highereducation in the United States is complex. It comprises four categories of institution:
1. The university, which may contain:
- several colleges for undergraduate students seeking a bachelor’s four-year degree;
- one or more graduate schools for those continuing in specialized...