Cause and effect of September 11, 2001 terrorist attack
Although often caused by nature, disasters can have human origins. Often it is the unpredictability of such disasters that causes fear, confusion and stress that have a lasting effect on the affected community. In recent history, the Sept 11th terrorist attack is one such example. This paper will examine the terrorists’ motivation towards committing the attack and the effect it had on the American society.
According to Pedahzur (2006), terrorist groups exist for the purpose of planning and executing attacks to accomplish their mission. Included among the objectives of terrorism are demonstrating the group’s power over population and government, exact revenge for perceived persecution and satisfy the group’s vengeance while at the same time gaining publicity for their actions. Accordingly, the September 11 attacks can be interpreted both as a direct signal to the United States to behave in a certain way and as an indirect signal to potential sympathizers that the united states is not invulnerable. Looking at it from this point of view, it can be debated that the most important cause of the terrorist attack was to diminish US prestige in the Arab world by sending the message that the symbols of UC economic, military and political power could be attacked (Pedahzur, 2006).
Terrorism can cause cascading effects that can have global effects. As the term alludes, terrorism is designed to evoke fear in its victims. This can lead to psychological as well as social effects, such as suspicion and exclusion of certain religious or ethnic groups even though they may have no association with the terrorist or terrorist organization. Fear for the unknown can cause people to react in an unpredictable manner. Before the attack, of September 11th 2001, Americans did not worry much about terrorism; after the attack, they were extremely worried. This...
...Leadership during a TerroristAttack:
Coping with 9/11 by Rebuilding
During the terroristsattacks of 9/11 many financial industries were particularly hard hit because of where the attack occurred. Cantor Fitzgerald (CF), a bond trading firm was amongst the hardest hit by the attacks. This is because when the plane hit the tower where CF was located most of CF’s employees were trapped above the initial impact. This caused CF to lose a huge number of employees and the only brother to Howard Lutnik who was and still is the company’s CEO. This crisis put the company at huge risk of becoming obsolete as there was no way to run the company with less than a third of the employees working. Something had to be done, and quick. This paper will show how effective crisis response can change the dynamic of a company from almost losing everything after a crisis has occurred to becoming one of the leader’s yet again in the industry.
“You Make the Call Questions”
* How did leadership function in this case? Leadership functioned in this case from the top. The CEO Harry Lutnik was the first to respond and make a plea as well as a promise on national television in an attempt to make a recovery of his company and help the families of the employees lost that were directly affected by the tragedy.
* Describe Lutnik’s visibility . Do you think it was appropriate for him to go on national T.V so...
...The terroristattacks on September 11th have repeatedly been related to Pearl Harbor. In many ways, the analogy is apparent. Just as that attack initiated us into World War II, the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon have initiated us into a new kind of war, against terrorism. But starting this sort of borderless war holds great risks, not only to the armed forces commanded to fight but also to core national values. In this way, Pearl Harbor brings other distressing memories, those of the internment.
Similar to the explosions on the East Coast, the bombing of Pearl Harbor on 12-7, devastated our beliefs of national security. How could this have taken place? Average individuals, famous journalists, and government officials soon started criticizing at the Japanese in America. Viewing these "Orientals" as terminally foreign, speaking foreign languages, effect foreign cultures, active foreign religions (Shinto, Buddhism), American society could not differentiate between the Empire of Japan and Americans of Japanese crash. As General DeWitt, in charge of the Western Defense Command, put it, "A Jap's a Jap." As government reports quickly to the wrapping up that Japanese Americans aided and supported the attack, the wheels of the internment machinery began revolving.
On February 19, 1942, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, which approved armed forces in the...
...and methods as well as individual motivations and community supporters. The goal of this ideology is to find out how they feel the society should work or be arranged, and the methods that will efficiently promote this idea.2 Terrorists are constantly developing ways to get their point across to different nations. They want to find a unique and powerful way that will send the message to a mass amount of people. For example, the flying of the planes into the World Trade Center was an act of political ideology. They were sending a clear message to the American government to leave the middle east.
The second dimension of a political ideology includes the individual motivations and community supporters. Terrorists believe they have a right to commit acts of extreme violence because it is derived from the “wrongs” done to them by an unjust system. Over time the “cause” has changed and it has led to terrorists believing their acts of terror are perceived as initial injustices, as a “justified response”.3 This is the issue: a group commits an act of terror because it feels that the opposing government is unjust. Thus, they spark a feud between the two and the other retaliates.
Religion also plays a large role in the development of terrorism. Terrorists are using their religion and shared beliefs to draw people in and strengthen their army. This is done by waging holy war on religious principles.4 Soldiers are...
...local, state and federal government, while demonstrating a resistance to the kinds of corruption that have sometimes plagued police forces at the municipal level or in other countries. It has successfully investigated terrorist acts at home and abroad.
The FBI has throughout its history all too often violated First Amendment rights of freedom of speech and association. In the name of national security, it has undertaken the disruption and "neutralization" of peaceful protest. It has devoted resources to monitoring political activity rather than focusing on the investigation of criminal conduct. It has relied on sweeping theories of guilt by association rather than undertaking the harder but more productive work of identifying those individuals who are planning violent activity. It has resisted public accountability and limits on its discretion. In the wake of the first bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993, and the bombing of the federal building in Oklahoma in 1995, Congress enacted the Antiterrorism Act of 1996, four of the one of the worst assaults on the Constitution in decades. It resurrected guilt by association as a principle of criminal and immigration law. It created a special court to use secret evidence to deport foreigners labeled as "terrorists." It made support for the peaceful humanitarian and political activities of selected foreign groups a crime. And it repealed a short-lived law forbidding the FBI from investigating First...
...An Analysis of the 9/11 TerroristAttack
On September 11, 2001, 19 Al Qaeda terrorists hijacked four United States commercial airliners travelling from the east coast to California. The hijackers forcibly took control of four planes. Two planes were purposefully crashed into the World Trade Center (WTC) in New York City. The third aircraft was flown into the Pentagon building in Washington DC. The fourth plane landed in a Pennsylvania field. All of the people on board the aircrafts were killed. There were 2996 people killed including the hijackers and the airline passengers and the victims on the ground in New York and Washington DC. A total of 836 first responders also died as the result of their efforts to rescue people in the WTC before it collapsed (The National Commission on TerroristAttacks, 2004). According to the US government, 9/11 was an act of war. The United States government, state and local agencies mobilized during the disaster. Victims in New York and Washington DC were taken to area hospitals for medical treatment. As the result of the terroristattack, the government instituted a series of measures that changed the United States policy towards terrorism and homeland security.
The aftermath of the World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks left the country in a state of shock. The report on 9/11 details the steps taken by the government during...
...The September 11, 2001 terroristattacks, now referred to as 9/11, were a series of coordinated, well-planned suicide attacks that involved the use of hijacked passenger jets as a means of destruction . The suicide bombers used the passenger jets as bombs, and ran into the World Trade Center Towers of New York, the Pentagon, and a fourth plane that did not make it to its destination, hit the ground in Pennsylvania. These suddenattacks came as a shock to the people and government of the USA. The attacks affected not only the United States, but the entire world felt the aftershock of the event. It specifically affected the United States economy and sent it on a downward spiral. It had a huge impact on people emotionally. The most significant outcome of the attacks was America?s march towards the War Against Terrorism, which targeted the Taliban network, the Al-Qaeda organization, and the specific terrorists behind the attacks.
The terrorists behind 9/11 targeted the World Trade Center Two Towers as key objectives. The World Trade Center was an indispensable center of US banking, insurance, and investment. The economy in the USA was deepening into a recession well before the events of 9/11, and due to the unreliability of the economy, the unemployment rate went up to 4.9 percent in August as job losses in manufacturing climbed over 1 million. Layoffs...
...Effects of a Cyber Attack on our Nations Infrastructure and Economy
May 5, 2010
The damaging effects on infrastructure through cyber terrorism have a critical effect on a Nation that can collapse an economy and destroy a nation’s safety. A very important infrastructure, that after 9/11 has changed dramatically, is mass transit or trains systems. The Transportation Security Agency modified their effort so step up and protect US commuters and infrastructure however rail has been neglected and under funded. An important question is what precautions have been made in order to secure this infrastructure from a cyber attack? What determines the infrastructure to be considered critical? Why would transportation (rail to be exact) be a critical infrastructure and what effects would a cyber attack have on this system?
In the United States our main government bodies that address the systems and security of the transportation infrastructure are the Department of Transportation (DOT) and the DHS Transportation Security Agency. Bullock, Coppola, Haddow, and Yeletaysi (2009) Explain “TSA provides security to the nations transportation systems with primary focus on aviation security” (p233). This text also includes there are...
The Terrorist’s Revolution
What causes a Terrorist to be labeled a Revolutionist or a Revolutionist labeled a Terrorist. Today’s society usually uses the terms interchangeably; when one begins to talk of revolution, they are normally labeled as a terrorist. A terrorist is normally labeled a terrorist by their enemy, but a hero by the people they fight for. Is it possible that a person who has been labeled as aTerrorist to actually have good intentions for those he fights for? Is it possible they are labeled a Terrorist only due to the fact they are fighting a revolution? A Terrorist corresponds with a Revolutionist, because a Revolutionist is someone who fights for a belief and in war terror is always there.
A terrorist is a person who advocates the use of fear or terror as methods of war. (Terrorist, n.) This definition is not entirely true, because there have been people labeled as terrorist who were not advocating fear. They were labeled this by the entity they were standing up to. “Does the fact that one side's "terrorist" is usually another's "freedom fighter" mean that there is no possibility of agreeing on ethical norms applicable to armed conflicts between governments and their opponents? (Goertzel.) In the case of this quotation by Goertzel, would not both sides be considered...