No region of the world has been untouched by trafficking. The paper concludes with a summary of regional patterns of human trafficking, including main origin and destination countries/regions. Surprisingly, there is little correlation between the development status of a country and its status as a country from which people are mostly trafficked. Central and Eastern European countries feature prominently, and it would appear that the transition from a closed economy, higher aspirations and a desire for opportunities abroad have fuelled people’s desire to go migrate, by whatever means, which has made many vulnerable to trafficking (Danailova-Trainor and Laczko 2010).
It is difficult to accurately measure the impact of trafficking because of its clandestine nature and hidden economies in which trafficked people work. Lack of legislation and inadequate national definitions; lack of political will; inexperience in dealing with the issue; corruption; victims’ inability or unwillingness to cooperate all make it difficult to determine the scale and impact (Aronowitz 2009).
However, while trafficking is too covert to accurately measure, the numbers involved are significant. Estimates suggest that 400,000 illegal immigrants reach Europe each year, while 850,000 arrive in the US annually (however, these figures include those who have paid smugglers, as well as trafficked victims). In 2004, the US government approximated that 600,000-800,000 are trafficked internationally annually, of which 80 per cent are female and 50 per cent are minors, with 70 per cent of females being trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation (US Department of State 2004). ILO estimates that 2.44 million people are in forced labour worldwide as a result of trafficking (out of an estimated 12.3 million people worldwide in forced bonded labour, child labour, and sexual servitude) (ILO 2008).
It is also clear that everywhere it occurs, the consequences are...
...Cause and Effects Of Human Trafficking
27million adults and 13million children are being trafficked worldwide. Human trafficking has become a multibillion crime enterprise, second to drug and arms dealing. Human trafficking is the recruitment, smuggling or receipt of persons by means of violence or other means of fraud, abuse authority or receiving benefits to control over a person for the purpose of exploitation (The United Nation n.d.). The roots of human trafficking lies in its high demand, the low risk nature of the job and the mentality of society.
Humans are highly profitable as forced labourer (Polaris Japan, 2012). Forced labour is an all work service which is exhausted from any person under cruelty, where the individual is unwilling to perform voluntarily (C29 Forced Labour Convention, 1930). Major forms of forced labourer are commercial sexual exploitations and forced economical exploitations. Commercial sexual exploitations include prostitution and pornography, while economical exploitations cover manual labour. These trades generate an estimated 31.6 billion dollars with industrialized economies contributing 49% of the grand total (Besler Patrick, 2005). High demands play a crucial role. When people are willing to buy sex, they create a market for traffickers to sexually exploit; when consumers buys services from forced labour industries, labour traffickers gain a...
...The Effect of Human Trafficking in Cambodia
By Som Chanthea, E1a
Human trafficking is the possession or trading of humans for the purpose of engaging them in slavery and prostitution through the means of force and coercion. It is a thriving industry that continues to grow every year. It is feared, that illegal trafficking of humans may soon outdo the illegal drug trade (Urvashi Pokharna (12/28/2011)). Women and girls are trafficked for commercial sexual exploitation to Thailand and Malaysia and some Cambodian men who migrate willingly to Thailand for work are subjected to conditions of forced labor in the Thai fishing, construction, and agricultural industries. Moreover, Children are trafficked to Thailand and Vietnam to beg or work on the streets selling candy or flowers or shining shoes. Some Cambodian women who migrated to Taiwan as the result of brokered international marriages were subsequently trafficked for prostitution. (United States Department of State, 4 June 2008)
Although the trafficking of humans can take on different forms in different contexts, the effects of trafficking need to be considered on both an individual as well as on society. Individuals may suffer from (April Palmer lee (10/11/2004)). Human trafficking is a deliberate and blatant violation of human rights. If the victim even survives the experience, it could take...
...Immigration in the Twenty-First Century: Accommodation and Change 486
Women in Math and Science 505
Finding Soldiers: The Volunteer Army, Recruitment, and the Draft 528
Wal-Mart and the Public Good 557
Sustainability and the Search for Clean Energy 578
Biotech Agriculture and the Ethics of Food Production 599
Argument Classics 623
vi Brief Contents
Part One Overview of Argument 1
1 Argument: An Introduction 2
What Do We Mean by Argument? 2
Argument Is Not a Fight or a Quarrel 2
Argument Is Not Pro-Con Debate 3
Arguments Can Be Explicit or Implicit 3
LOUIS W. SULLIVAN, M.D., Let the Facts Decide, Not Fear: Ban AB 1108 6
A former secretary of health and human services opposes a ban on a chemical that
makes toys soft and flexible.
The Defining Features of Argument 10
Argument Requires Justification of Its Claims 10
Argument Is Both a Process and a Product 12
Argument Combines Truth Seeking and Persuasion 13
Argument and the Problem of Truth 15
A Successful Process of Argumentation: The Well-Functioning
GORDON ADAMS (STUDENT), Petition to Waive the University Mathematics
A student accepted to law school but delayed by a remaining math requirement argues
to be exempted.
2 Argument as Inquiry: Reading and Exploring 24
...TSL1054 – LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT II
Causes & Effects of Human
Mohd Nur Hifzhan Bin Noordan
Lecturer’s name: Madam Anna Mary Perumal
♥Reported push factors were
A lady being hit for
not doing her job
• In poorer regions of the world where education and employment
opportunities are limited the most vulnerable in society – runaways,
refugees, or other persons
• They are seeking for opportunity and entry to other countries may be
picked up by traffickers and misled into thinking that they will be free
after being smuggled across the border.
• Trafficking of children often involves exploitation of the parents’
• They later may sell their children to traffickers to pay off debts or gain
income or they maybe deceived concerning the prospects of training
and a better life for their children.
• Humans nowadays are addicted to money and drugs.
• Drug addicts are very desperate that they are willing to sell their
children to traffickers so that they afford to buy more drugs for
POLITICAL INSTABILITY &
• The issues of porous borders, corrupt Government officials, the
involvement of international organized criminal groups or network and...
...receives information. That lens is worded, phrased, and discussed in ways that – intentionally or not – shed light on certain areas of an issue, while leaving others in the shadows. Consequently, this reporting lens affects the way the public thinks about a certain issue, and affects the subsequent decisions they make when addressing it. Human trafficking is not a new phenomenon; in fact, it has existed for thousands of years. With the proliferation of media in modern culture, human trafficking has become a topic on the forefront of global migration issues. While distributing information in order to foster knowledge and awareness, the media nonetheless contains assumptions and biases – both intentional and unintentional – that affect the way human trafficking is viewed by both the public and the policy-makers. By using gendered lens, focusing on criminal causations, and propagating the idea that enforcement is the only solution to trafficking, the media portrays human trafficking in a very different light than true statistical evidence and academic research supports.
The goal of this paper is to reveal how Canadian media portrays human trafficking to the public, and how their assumptions affect the policies and perceptions of this issue. Methodology for this paper consisted of a collection of newspaper articles that were sourced online. I chose the top 3 English-language newspapers in Canada,...
Human trafficking is an illegal trade in human beings for the purpose of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labor. Human trafficking is modern form of slavery and is the second largest fastest growing criminal industry in the world and profits billions of dollars in business. After the drug trade human trafficking is the second biggest organized crime in the world. Millions of victims are entrapped and exploited every year in this modern form of slavery. Human trafficking is a crime that strips people of their rights, ruins their dreams, and robs them of their dignity. Human trafficking is a global problem and an issue and has been growing since the 1700’s.
The Trafficking Victims Protection Act was created in 2000 (Polaris Project, n.d.). The Act is broken down into three parts which are prevention, protection, and prosecution. The prevention portion of the acts states that there needs to be an office set up within the state department which is monitor and combat the trafficking issue. It also makes a point to inform the public that human trafficking is out there to prevent potential victims, and insist on the creation of a task force that was special trained to fight it (Polaris Project, n.d.). Protection was created to protect those who have been victims of trafficking. It includes protection and assistance to those who have...
...Human Trafficking: A Transnational Problem
Human trafficking is the world’s oldest form of slavery. Since biblical times, men, women and children have been sold across borders into slavery. Human trafficking today is a growing business. Human rights groups estimate that the number of modern slaves exceeds that of the Atlantic slave trade in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (ProQuest Staff). In the modern world, globalization has made it easier to mobilize these victimized individuals. Human trafficking is a recognized problem worldwide that is brought on for various reasons and the methods to end trafficking have, thus far, fallen short.
First, it is important to understand precisely what human trafficking is. According to Diaz, human trafficking is as follows:
“the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum,... the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs (UN,...
...Human trafficking is the illegal trade in human beings for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation or forced labour. Trafficking in persons is a serious crime and a grave violation of human rights. Trafficking is a lucrative industry. It is second only to drug trafficking as the most profitable illegal industry in the world.
In 2004, the total annual revenue for trafficking in persons were estimated to be between USD $5 billion and $9 billion. Every year, thousands of men, women and children fall into the hands of traffickers, in their own countries and abroad. Almost every country in the world is affected by trafficking, whether as a country of origin, transit or destination for victims. In my speech, I plan to persuade you that human trafficking is real and is becoming a bigger issue than we think and we need to stop this from happening to anyone ever again.
In 2010, the United Nations estimated nearly 2.5 million people from 127 different countries are being trafficked into 137 countries around the world. Unlike most cases of human smuggling, victims of human trafficking are not permitted to leave upon arrival at their destination.
Traffickers recruit women and children through deceptive means including falsified employment advertisements for domestic workers, waitresses and other low-skilled work. Traffickers include those involved in highly sophisticated networks of...