Education in the Philippines
Education in the Philippines is based on the education system of the United States, with some variations. Generally, compulsory elementary education runs for 6 years, while secondary education takes 4 years. After high school there are vocational courses or colleges which offer courses for a varying number of years depending on the course. University courses leading to a bachelor’s degree are usually 4 years long. The school year, which is at least 200 days or 40 weeks long, generally begins on the first Monday in June and ends by the last Friday of March, when the hot, dry season begins. School attendance takes place from Monday to Friday. History
Early Filipinos usually taught their children at home, focusing more on vocational skills than academics. There were also tribal tutors, but there was no structured educational system. Nevertheless, the Spaniards observed that there was an overwhelmingly high literacy rate, finding most of the natives were proficient in their indigenous system of writing. Spanish colonial era
With the coming of the Spaniards, missionary teachers replaced the tribal tutors. The focus of education during the Spanish Colonization of the Philippines was mainly religious education. The Catholic doctrine schools that were set up initially became parochial schools which taught reading and writing along with catechism. In 1863, an educational decree mandated the establishment of free primary schools in each town, one for boys and one for girls, with the precise number of schools depending on the size of the population. There were 3 grades: entrada, acenso, and termino. The curriculum required the study of Christian doctrine, values and history as well as reading and writing in Spanish, mathematics, agriculture, etiquette, singing, world geography, and Spanish history. Girls were also taught sewing. The decree also provided for a normal school run by the Jesuits to educate male teachers in Manila. Normal schools for women teachers were not established until 1875, in Nueva Caceres. Despite the Decree of 1863, basic education in the Philippines remained inadequate for the rest of the Spanish period. Often, there were not enough schools built. Teachers tended to use corporal punishment. The friars exercised control over the schools and their teachers and obstructed attempts to properly educate the masses, as they considered widespread secular education to be a threat to their hold over the population. The schools were often poorly equipped, lacking the desks, chairs, and writing materials that they were required to have under the decree. Though classes were supposed to be held from 7-10 am and 2:30-5 pm throughout the year, schools were often empty. Children skipped school to help with planting and harvesting or even because their clothes were ragged. For higher education, there were a few reputable private institutions such as the University of Sto. Tomas, Colegio de San Juan de Letran, and Ateneo Municipal. Though initially an institute of higher education, UST was required by an 1865 decree to open public secondary schools. Malolos Republic
After the Spanish colonial government was overthrown, the schools established during the Spanish era were closed down for a time by Emilio Aguinaldo’s government. They were eventually reopened by the Secretary of Interior on 29 August 1898. The Malolos Constitution made elementary education compulsory and provided for free schooling. The Universidad Literaria de Filipinas, which provided courses in law, medicine, surgery, pharmacy, and notarianship, was established by Aguinaldo on 19 October 1898. He also set up the Military Academy of Malolos and decreed that all diplomas awarded by UST after 1898 be considered null and void. During this period, other secular institutions which emphasized local geography and history were also established, such as the Burgos Institute in Malolos. Except for the emphasis on...
...English grammar has minimal inflection compared with most other Indo-European languages. For example, Modern English, unlike Modern German or Dutch and the Romance languages, lacks grammatical gender and adjectival agreement. Case marking has almost disappeared from the language and mainly survives in pronouns. The patterning of strong (e.g. speak/spoke/spoken) versus weak verbs (e.g. love/loved or kick/kicked) inherited from its Germanic origins has declined in importance in modern English, and the remnants of inflection (such as plural marking) have become more regular.
At the same time, the language has become more analytic, and has developed features such as modal verbs and word order as resources for conveying meaning. Auxiliary verbs mark constructions such as questions, negative polarity, the passive voice and progressive aspect. English word order has moved from the Germanic V2 word order to being almost exclusively subject-verb-object; as English makes extensive use of auxiliary verbs, this will often create clusters of two or more verbs at the centre of the sentence, such as "he had hoped to try to open it". The long literary history of English has also created many conventions regarding the use of techniques such as verbal nouns and relative clauses to express complex ideas in formal writing.
...new ways to help EnglishLanguage Learners succeed in their education. However they have come across many different legal and ethical conflicts that make it harder for educators to do their job in helping these learners succeed. Educators try to find ways that they can still help EnglishLanguage Learners succeed without breaking the laws. As a teacher it is your job to make sure that all of the students get an equaleducation given the same and fair chance at education. While laws sometimes make is hard to do this and prevent some educators for doing what they feel they should do to make sure that their students get a fair and equal education and succeed.
Schools today are being pushed to find as many ways that they can to help their English Learners become successful. Many states have taken away from the bilingual programs and have forced the children to learn English. It is true that this may be an English speaking country, but we cannot take a young child’s education away. All around the country their has been an increase in Englishlanguage learners, which is forcing the schools to help these students succeed and grow to make sure that they are keeping their numbers up. The schools and the educators must make sure with this...
Writing Assignment #4
Language and Identity in Education
In schools across America, students from varying backgrounds subconsciously develop their identities through their interactions with their peers and their teachers. The language they speak, how they speak it, and how others respond or react to their language helps to evolve their developing senses of self. School district policies and teachers can drastically affect how these children see themselves and the world around them. If they’re lucky, they’ll have teachers who have a deep interest in their well-being, who will cherish the student’s different cultural backgrounds while providing them with opportunities for success in their lives after school. On the contrary, they could feel the helplessness that comes with marginalization and be left unable to rise above the oppression. The American Education system needs to improve to better help these nontraditional students succeed while promoting cultural diversity.
When teachers focus solely on teaching Standard English, they ignore the varied backgrounds of their students. While knowing Standard English facilitates what it takes to succeed, nontraditional students may need extra help in understanding and producing it. For instance, children whose first language is Spanish may have...
...Politics and the EnglishLanguage Analysis
In “Politics and the EnglishLanguage,” George Orwell argues against the common belief that language grows with and adapts to the changing times, there being nothing any individual can do about it. He explains that the decline of the Englishlanguage comes from a never ending cycle of foolish thoughts giving way to sloppy writing, which eventually leads to more foolish thoughts. Throughout his essay, Orwell connects with his readers by establishing his credibility, using emotional appeals, and providing logical evidence of how the Englishlanguage is continuously declining and how writers could slow, and possibly stop, this process.
To emphasize the complexity of the rules of writing, Orwell utilizes parallel structure, often interlacing parallel structures to keep the reader on his/her toes and give the body unity. His parallel structures also assist in straying away from repetition of ideas and a monotonous tone. Although Orwell states that “correct grammar and syntax…are of no importance,” one can see that he most definitely attempts to engage his readers through syntax and grammar (109). His back-and-forth writing between his body paragraphs and his self contradiction supports the rule he later introduces: “Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous” (112). His...
...English as a Second Language
It is a struggle to adapt to a new culture and language, which may be completely different from the ones young child may have already learned. This can lead to inner conflict, confusion, and even anger. One way to handle the conflict is to cut ties with the first culture including language. But is this the answer? Doing so can create a sense of loss. In the essay “Aria: A Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood”, Richard Rodriguez shares his personal experience with learning English as a second language. In his linguistic journey, the author feels a disconnect between Spanish, the language used at home by his Mexican immigrant parents, and English, the language used in the public world. He raises an important question whether the primary language should be encouraged or forgotten. He disagrees with social activists on implementing the “family language” in public schools. He argues, that although the transition may be difficult, establishing public identity in the English speaking community is extremely important. It should be every child’s obligation to learn and speak English. Even though his points may be valid to some degree, the research on benefits of bilingual education proves otherwise.
Richard Rodriguez was born to Mexican...
...two boys with a wicked look, are pretending they are the owners of it.
In the middle of the hottest and the most adventurous day on the beach, there is a big colourful ice-cream van passing near the busy coastline. When it stops from nowhere appears an endless tail of children waiting their turn to choose their ice-cream. The man in the van looks like a robot, with no feelings as his face is the same dull look for the whole time. The endless line, finally starts to end, when almost the day starts to end too.
The sunset has almost arrived. Soon the dark will absorb the beautiful warm atmosphere of the beach. So people are starting to pack up their things, while the children are still unaware of everything. Some seagulls and many other types of birds are beginning to soar away from the beach, covering almost the entire sky of many colours; maybe it is time for them too, to leave the beach heading into their nests as now the endless day is about to terminate.
The sky is getting darker covering all the lights in the world. Also the beach is beginning to be again as it was in the morning: silent and remote. The air grows colder and colder so much so that is impossible to see a living soul passing by, and the warm smell of the sea air is being devoured by the cold breeze, and the chant of the waves are being devoured by the rising song of the nearby arcades, as the sun slowly sets.
...The Misuse of Language
Miscommunication is often the result of modern prose which is most commonly used despite its vagueness because of its simplicity. According to George Orwell’s “Politics in the EnglishLanguage,” these habits must be eliminated in order to think clearly, if not, language will continue to be used in corrupt ways by politicians. With poor language skills come poor thinking skills, making it easier for people to be manipulated by warped language. Ted Hughes “Words and Experience” expresses that words are inadequate and that it is very difficult to capture experience properly. The way in which Hughes and Orwell appeal to the problem of miscommunication are different; Orwell is critical while Hughes is sympathetic.
In the paper “Politics in the EnglishLanguage,” George Orwell appeals to logos to prove that the misuse of language is corruptly used by politicians for selfish purposes. Thought corrupts language and politicians manipulate language for their own selfish purposes. Words such as fascism and democracy are among those words due to their lack of a concrete meaning. Democracy is often associated with a positive meaning whereas fascism is associated with a negative meaning. As a result dishonest politicians use their own interpretation to twist the meaning of what they are trying to communicate....