Independent Reviewer on Social Mobility and Child Poverty
Like so many others of
my generation I was the
first in my family to go
to university. It was an
experience that changed
my life. As a child from
a council estate I was
lucky enough to end
up in the Cabinet. I was
born at the right time. In
social mobility was in full swing. By 1958, when I
was born, the prospect of a more classless society
seemed within reach. Half a century later such
optimism looks hopelessly misplaced. Intractable
levels of social inequality and a flatlining in social
mobility have thwarted repeated attempts to
realise the post-war vision of a fair society.
Every cloud, however, has a silver lining. In the
aftermath of the global financial crisis a new public
– maybe even political – consensus has begun to
emerge that entrenched inequality and ossified
social mobility are not viable propositions for
Britain. Institutions, from banks to governments,
are having to answer new questions about how
they will change what they do in order to change
how society works. Universities are no exception.
This report asks what universities are doing to help
create a Britain that is more socially mobile, and
what more they could do. The answer to the first
question seems to be quite a lot. The answer to
the second is that they could, and should, be doing
a lot more – and in a far more focused way.
We are blessed in Britain to have a world-leading
higher education sector. Our universities are a
great source of strength for the country and their
role – in an increasingly knowledge-based economy
– is becoming more and more central to our
future prosperity. Universities are also becoming
increasingly central to our future social prospects.
Education and employability are the keys that
can unlock both individual citizens’ and countries’
progress. Who gets into university and how they
get on once they have left will have a critical role
in determining whether Britain’s sluggish rates of
social mobility can be improved. In recent years
it has become commonplace to focus on the
economic good that universities bring to Britain.
Today, there needs to be an equal focus on the
social good they can bring.
Recent progress and new risks
The last four decades...
...Changes in Education
Part One – An overview of the development of
Education in the UK which makes reference to key legislation and policy.
Part Two – An overview of a contemporary issue in education and an analysis of how the issue has been informed by historical perspectives.
Education aims to develop each individual intellectually and socially helping to bridge the gap between sustainability and social mobility (National Council of Educational Research and Training 2006). The development of education in England has undergone major change over the years, resulting in providing a more inclusive education, bringing about social change and improved educational practices. This assignment aims to provide an overview of the development of education in England.
The 2010 election resulted in a hung parliament, forming the current coalition government between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats. The coalition formed the new Education Act (2011) which takes forward the legislative proposals in the Schools White Paper (The Department of Education (DfE, 2010a) to reform education in England. As part of this proposal, the Secretary of State for Education Michael Gove appointed an expert panel. The committee conducted a review of the National Curriculum, providing advice on the construction and...
...the view that the main function of education is to reproduce and legitimate social inequalities
Functionalism is a consensus theory which sees society as being essentially harmonious. It argues that society has basic needs, including the need for social order. To survive, society needs social solidarity through everyone sharing the same norms and values. Durkheim said that the purpose of education is to promote social normality. He sees major functions ofeducation as the transmission of society’s norms and values. Durkheim also says it prepares people for work and jobs are specialised and people need training for that and the job of education is what they need to go out to work. In school the child learns to interact with other members of the school community and to follow a fixed set of rules. This experience prepares the child for interacting with members of society as an adult and accepting social rules. Durkheim argues that individuals must be taught specialist skills so that they can take their place within a highly complex division of labour in which people have to co-operate to produce items. Marxists argue that educational institutions tend to transmit a dominant culture which serves the interest of the ruling class rather than those of society as a whole. Willis and Hargreaves say it is not always successful as some do not follow it. Feminists feel the men’s values move on and women are the ones declined....
...society, having a college education is one of the single most important factors when applying for a job. Employers expect at the minimum for applicants to have an Associates degree. However, many employers prefer hiring individuals who have obtained a bachelors degree or higher. In “Are Too Many People Going to College?”, Charles Murray discusses the importance of Americans sharing the same basic core knowledge (223). Having a college degree makes an individual more money than an individual who just has a high school diploma. It provides people with a wide variety of opportunity regarding career paths and educational experiences. Those who obtain a college degree often times have a more secure future regarding their job and if they decide to advance to a different job. With a degree individuals have the will power to move a different job without worrying about not meeting certain job requirements. Lastly, having a college degree secures an individual future by providing an educational safety net. Although critics claim that the cost of college is overwhelming, all people should seek a higher education after high school.
In “Are Colleges Worth the Price of Admission?”, Andrew Hacker and Claudia Dreifus discuss the current hardship that many college students face-student loans (179). Many people cannot afford to go to their dream college due to overpriced admission. Critics argue that due to the financial burdens associated with obtaining an...
...Functionalist perspective on the role of education
A functionalist’s perspective on education is to examine society in terms of how it is maintained or in other words how it is ran effectively. A functionalist exaggerates on positive aspects of schools such as socialisation, learning skills and attitudes in school. This is because functionalists believe everything in society happens for a reason to instil the smooth running of society. They see no wrong in society and turn their nose down at the things like schools with bad exam grades due to poor employment etc.
Education helps society by socialising young people into values of achievement, competition and equal opportunity. This then prepares the young people for work in the future as these are all the traits you will need in working life which is why the functionalists argue that school is a smooth running society. Skills are also important as education teaches the skills for the economy, for example business, literacy, numeracy and IT. Role allocation is a big part in school as education allocates people to the most appropriate jobs for their talents, using examinations and qualifications. Functionalists see school as the fairest way to determine an individual’s ability. They argue the best way to determine a young person’s future is by how well they do in their exams, despite what they may be able to achieve manually and not academically....
...Functionalism and Education
Evaluate Functionalists approach to education
Functionalists believe that the educational system is a positive educational experience, which benefits both children and society. It socialises young people into cultural values, such as achievement, individualism and equality of opportunity. Education is a secondary agency of socialisation, teaching the norms and values of achieved status of the wider world. Parsons described education as a bridge between family and society. The most important example is teaching the value of meritocracy. At home, family members get their status for being the oldest whereas in society they get their status through achievements. Skills provision is also important as education teaches skills needed for the economy for example literacy and numeracy needed for particular occupations. Role allocation plays an essential role in education. Davis and Moore argue that the main function of education is that it allocates students to the most appropriate jobs for their talents using examinations and qualifications, meaning that the most important jobs are done by the most able people. This function therefore believes that the education system is meritocratic. The basic principles of functionalism are body analogy (all parts of society benefit the whole), value consensus (society is harmonious) and social...
...Sociology of Education
A functionalist view is that education prepares children for their role in society. The view suggests that the education system is meritocratic with each pupil having an equal opportunity to succeed, and students who are the most hardworking will achieve the best grades.
Functionalists suggest there are three main objectives of the education system. One function is to provide secondary socialisation in addition to the family’s role of primary socialisation. Through a formal and hidden curriculum pupils are taught societies norms and values. A second objective of the education system is to teach skills which are necessary for success in the workplace in modern society. These skills range from basic requirements such as reading and writing to skills which are needed to be able to perform specific jobs. The third role is to offer qualifications through assessments and examinations which enable a student to get a job in line with their individual talents.
There are criticisms of the functionalist perspective. This approach could be classed as too deterministic. It makes an assumption that the values taught in school will automatically be embraced by students. In reality some students will and some won’t. Also the values taught are ethnocentric and pupils from different cultures often reject and rebel against this. A functionalist view could also be criticised by suggesting all...
...means there should be no descrimination among people. They also learn that people shoul have equal opportunities and understand their rights and responsibilities.
Gender is sometimes defined as sex and actually its term more than just a sex. If gender differences mean sex diffeences between a man and a woman, but gender inequalities are behavioral differences between man and woman that is socially and culturally constructed. Gender defferences will eventually cause gender inequalities in many apects of the human life such as in education, workplaces and society.
Gender In Education
1. Short Historical Perspectives On Gender and Education Before 1960s
According to Cole (2000) the education in the nineteenth (19th) century was organized along the lines of a social class. Girls rarely features in general histories of mass schooling. For instance, there are a number historical documents on woman struggle to get access to secondary and higher education. Some researcher noted that around the 19th century there were a few school for girls. Girls were less likely to be sent to school, between boys and girls did not have the same access to a common curriculum. Also in 1960 the boys are focus on goverment but girls are at home.
Around the 1900s, the school curriculum still differentiated between boys and girls. Girls had given lessson related to housework and to being a mother, but the boys were not....
...QN) With close reference to university education in Kenya, discuss the various means of financing education and evaluate the equity implications.
To answer this claim, we start by defining critical terms so as to clearly get the full meaning of this assertion.
Education is the process act or process of impacting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgement, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life. It can also be defined as the process of acquiring desirable skills, attitudes and knowledge, as for a profession
University education means the totality of general and specialized knowledge and skills that enable a university graduate to solve problems that he encounters in industry or to perform scientific research or pedagogical work within the area of specialized knowledge that he has acquired.
Financing refer to how people allocate their assets over time and conditions of certainity and uncertainity while education financing refers to any aspect of raising and spending revenue for educational purposes.
Kenya as one of the developing countries in Afrca is faced with the problem of financing its education. Despite the role of the universities...