Education Reform in Hong Kong: 334 System
There are a number of controversies and debates on recent education reforms in Hong Kong. The most recent and debatable one is 334 Education System in 2012. In the following, it will first briefly look into the old and new education system. Also, it will explore the implications of the new education system to see the causes and consequences.
By 2012, the 334 Education System replaced the 3223 Education System. The two systems are structurally different from each other. For the 3223 Education System (old system), there are three years for middle school (form one to form three), two years for high school (from four to form five), two years for preparatory school (form six to form seven) and three years for university. Also, in the 3223 Education System, there are two external examinations, namely HKCEE and HKALE. For the 334 Education System (new system), it is structurally different. There are three years for secondary school, three years for senior secondary school and four years for university. Compared to the 3223 Education System, there is only one external examination, namely HKDSE. As a result, the 334 Education System replaced the 3223 Education System are structurally different.
First, starting with the context of the 334 Education System, it is useful to explore the implications. In terms of the old education system, it was established during colonial rule, and mirrors that of the United Kingdom. In the past, most secondary schools have followed the British seven-year secondary school curriculum (junior school for three years, high school for two years and pre-university for two years). Following the transfer sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China in 1997, Hong Kong was preparing to change its education system according to Chinese education system. Although the handover of Hong Kong was in 1997, social change takes a long period to develop, especially non-material culture...
...In HongKongeducationsystem, there are six types of primary and secondary schools, government schools, subsidized schools, Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS) schools, private schools, private international schools and English Schools Foundation. (Education Bureau, 2009) . In this essay, I will mainly focus on the sociological and economic perspectives of Direct Subsidy schools.
There are ten points in sociological and economic perspectives. Greater flexibility can be obtained for schools. (Education Commission, 1988) . The scheme allows them to enjoy high autonomy which they can design their own syllabuses and curricula according to their own wishes. The schools can then establish their own unique cultures and styles, and achieve their visions. For example, Lam Tai Fai College in Sha Tin has a strong belief in whole-person development, and expects its students to excel in areas other than academic study. It therefore makes full use of the freedom and introduced different interest subjects such as “Creative Fashion Design”, “Sports Science & Recreational Management” and “Health Education”, etc. The mentioned are indeed unique throughout HongKong, which only the College is offering.
There would be a larger budget, both for DSS schools and government. (Hui, K.Y., 2001). DSS schools are expected to acquire more resources with the school fee, and...
... In the past, HongKongeducation was closely modeled on the system that was found in the UK. This is hardly surprising since HongKong was administered by Britain from 1841 to 1997, when the former UK colony was handed back to China. However, since 1997, the educationsystem taught in local schools has undergone a series of changes. While some of these changes have reflected different language of instruction policies, there have also been changes to the senior secondary curriculum. The new model, brought in at the beginning of the 2009/10 academic year, is now more in line with those found in China and even the USA.
While there are nine years of compulsory schooling in HongKong, six in primary school and three in junior secondary school, the HongKong government has recently moved to make it easier and more likely that the majority of students will receive 12 years of education. The removal of fees and one series of public exams in senior secondary school is a move which will make a full twelve years’ of education a much more accessible option for a great number of students.
There has always been schooling beyond the years of compulsory education. The majority of students attend 3 years of kindergarten (K1 – K3) before attending primary school. Under the new...
...In HongKong, gifted education was not placed as an education policy until the release of Education Commission Report No. 4 in 1990, which addressed serious inadequacies in gifted education for HongKongs most bright and talented students (Education Commission Report No. 4, 1990). In 1995, Fung Hon Chu Gifted Education Centre was established for promoting and supporting gifted students, parents and teachers. In response to the increasing demand on gifted education, the Gifted Education Section of Education Manpower Bureau (now EDB) was formally established in 2003 to implement the gifted education policy. In 2006, HongKong Government announced the establishment of the HongKong Academy for Gifted Education (HKAGE) which was formally established in 2008 to offer education programs for secondary gifted students nominated by schools. HKAGEs service extended to primary gifted students in 2012. Three-Tier Framework In HongKong, the Three-Tiers-Framework was formulated in 2002 to act as the gifted education policy in HongKong. Generally, Tier 1 is designed to accommodate learners in the general education classroom,...
...Essay #1: Education
When it comes to education, many people automatically have a negative reaction; especially when discussing the United States’ educational system. Whether it is grade school or a higher education, most people would agree that something needs to be changed. However, finding the specific “what” that should be changed in the educationsystem is hard, because it’s failure is a combination of many things, rather than one direct problem. As citizens, we know that flaws are expected in any sort of process/system and the educationsystem, being so vast, is bound to have many issues in its own. Authors and scholars from around the world, such as Jonathan Kozol, David Orr, Sir Ken Robinson and many others, help present these flaws to the public through intense persuasive and informational writing/speaking. Data shows that the United States has been and continues to fall behind other countries like Finland, HongKong, Canada, Japan, and Korea in typical testing of subjects like mathematics, science, and reading (Husén 455). Standards of education are varying from country to country and this is a direct reflection of differing goals per country on national scale, in terms of education. The United States has seemingly lower overall standards of education, as...
...gain …... associated with the
expectation of housing occupation” (Levin and Wright, 1997). To counter the activities of
speculators, there are a number of possible solutions for the government. Increasing the
supply for first-time users, however, is the most comprehensive method to solve this
problem. The following paragraphs will first analyze the seriousness of housing
speculation. Then, it will introduce three-fold possible solutions and discuss the best
solution to curb the speculation.
Housing speculation has become serious since 2009 in when people overcame the
financial tsunami. In fact, average residential properties prices increased by around 24%
in 2010 following a 30 percent up in the previous year (Yung, 2011), but HongKong
average income rate only rose by 3.3 percent from 2009 to 2010 (the Census and
Statistics Department, 2011). Comparing the two figures, it is unaffordable for many
Hongkongers below 40 years of age to buy their own houses or apartments because
their salary increment may not correspond to the rapid increase in housing price. If
housing speculation continues to deteriorate continually, the benefits of real users will
be harmed as well as social stability.
Tsang Ka Lam
First, the government can collect Special Stamp Duty (SSD) from speculators to
curb the speculation but it cannot counter the activities of large speculators. Conpa CPA
...Taxation Systems in HongKong
According to the “Final Report to the Financial Secretary” prepared by the Advisory Committee on New Broad-based Taxes set up the HongKong Government in 2001, the definitions of three major taxation principles, efficient, effective, and equitable are explained in below. Efficient means a taxation system “must be operationally efficient to minimize compliance cost for taxpayers and administration cost for government”. Effective is defined as a system that is “revenue productive. They should produce the amount of tax revenue required in a timely manner. Revenue yield should be sustainable over time and be insulated as far as reasonably possible from adverse economic cycles”. Equitable means “taxing in proportion to taxpayers’ abilities to pay”. There are two types of equity a tax system should achieve: vertical equity and horizontal equity. While vertical equity concerns with the ability to pay, horizontal equity is about economic neutrality. It means a tax system should have a minimal impact on economic decisions and resource allocation in the private sector. In the following, the merits of the three most common taxation mechanisms, income tax, property tax, and sales tax are analysed in terms of their efficiency, effectiveness, and equitability in application to the local situation of Hong...
...HONGKONG SHUE YAN UNIVERSITY
BUS 405 TAX PLANNING
Mr. Herbert Lee, a Singaporean, is being offered a job from a U.S. based company, Gateway Corporation. According to the proposed employment contract, Mr. Lee will have to meet the management team in the US and sign the contract there. His job is to oversee and supervise the operations of the Corporation’s various affiliated companies in the Far East region, includingHongKong. He is expected to travel extensively in the region but for convenience purposes, he will be sent to and be accommodated in the office of Gateroom Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of Gateway Corporation in HongKong. No contract is to be signed between Mr. Lee and Gateroom Ltd but it is agreed that Gateroom Ltd will provide all administrative support to Mr. Lee especially when he stayed in HongKong to perform his duties. Gateroom Ltd will charge back its administrative costs (including travelling and telephone costs) to the US parent in respect of its support given. Mr. Lee is required to report directly to the US parent in respect of the operation performance of respective companies in the region. His salary will however be paid in Singapore dollars into his bank account in Singapore.
Mr. Lee understands that HongKong taxation system is limited by...
...PCLL Conversion Examination June 2011 Examiner’s Comments HongKong Legal System The examination consisted of three questions two of which were compulsory. The three
questions addressed: HK sources of law, jury service and reciprocity between the HKSAR and PRC legal systems. The examination was held over two hours and written on a closed book basis. As with past exams, the examiners prepared a list of factors in advance of the examination that were relevant to answering each question. Thus, to answer the questions successfully, candidates needed to address a majority of those factors and to do so in a in a structured and relevant manner. Candidates should have also been able to express themselves in a clear and succinct manner. In order to answer the questions satisfactorily, candidates needed to have been able to cite relevant sources of law and/or major commentators in each area, as appropriate. The overall standard was not very good and was, impressionistically, not as good as in previous sessions. There were a very small number of papers that could be said to have attained even a very good, let alone excellent, standard. The vast majority were at the level of a very bare pass. On the whole, the same reasons for the poor standard of performance were present as in previous sessions: lack of relevant knowledge, lack of comprehension of the scope and parameters of each question, failure to address the question...