CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction
Education is so important in any given society. For this reason, it forms a major part of any government’s plans. The plans that any government wishes to implement as regards their education system is determined by existing policies. Factors which influence formulation of policies form the subject of this discussion. For orderly presentation, the essay is divided into three chapters namely the introduction, the main body and conclusion. The introduction gives definitions of key terms used in the essay as well as conceptual frame work, the main body outlines and discusses major factors which influenced education policies in African countries after achieving their independence and lastly the conclusion draws a summary of the essay. 1.1 Statement of essay purpose
This essay aims at discussing the factors which influenced education policies in African countries after their achievement of independence. The essay will outline these factors and later give a detailed discussion of each factor. 1.2 Definitions of terms
In order to make this discussion meaningful, it is imperative that definitions of key terms that are involved are done. The key terms involved in the discussion are education, policy and independence. The definitions of the terms are as given below Education
According to the United Nations Education, Scientific and Culture Organisation (1975:1), education is defined as “organised and sustained communication designed to bring about learning” Thus education in this context involves a lifelong process by which an individual is incorporated into the group and made capable of behaving in the ways expected by the society for an individual of a particular age, sex or status. Education can take place formally, non formally and informally. However, in this context the emphasis is on formal education. Policy
A policy is defined as a deliberate plan of action which is put in place to guide decisions and achieve intended outcomes. Policies differ from rules or laws. Rules or laws are established to compel or prohibit certain behaviours while policies guide actions towards desired goals. This discussion, however, focuses on education policies. Bartlett and Burton (2012:134), define an education policy as the “rafts of laws and initiatives that determine the shape and functioning of educational systems at both national and local levels. Therefore, education policies give direction to the functioning of an education system. Independence
This is defined as the freedom from being governed or ruled by another country. African countries in this discussion acquired the freedom to rule themselves from colonial mast 1.3 Conceptual Framework
Blackmore (1999), states that there are three models of policy making namely popular participation, decree and delegation models. This discussion will refer to these three models in outlining and discussing the factors which influenced education policies in African countries after achieving their independence. These models are discussed in detail below.
(a) Popular Participation Policy making model
(b) In this model, everybody is given an opportunity to contribute to the formulation of policies. People in African countries were given opportunities to make suggestions on changes to make to the education system. For example, Zambia’s educational reforms of 1977. (c) Decree Policy Making Model
In this model, the head of state makes pronouncements on the direction to be followed in a given education system. (d) Delegation Policy Making Model
This involves appointing a commission to review the education system of a given country. For example the Onide Commission was appointed to review the education system of Kenya in 1963.Policies are made with respect to the findings of the commission.
2.0 Main Body
This chapter outlines and...
The education sector plays a crucial role in the social and economic development of a nation (Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, nd,), fundamental to the fulfilment to individual basic needs A country’s education is seen as a reflection of its “institutional and ideological framework of the its society” (McNeely, 1995, p. 489). Therefore, the development clear policies and plans are vital in the attainment of the goal of Education for all (UNESCO, 2012, para. 1).
Policies refer to expressed or implied statements which describe the principles and rules that are guides and constraints for an organization, and are usually put together by the executive arm (Davis, 1951, cited in UWIOC, 2013, p.3). Educational policies therefore, are statements articulated by the relevant educational authority to guide the thinking and action within the sector (UWIOC, 2013, p. 4). Policy making describes a “political activity characterised by self-interest, political bargaining, value judgement and multiple rationalities, and within the education sector, this entails harmonising differing demands, and petitioning the support and or tolerance from stakeholders who are interested in education (Haddad, 1995, p. 23). Education planning is the ability to convert policy statements into actions that can be...
DEPARTMENT: EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT, POLICY AND CURRICULUM STUDIES
UNIT NAME: EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION
UNIT CODE: EAP 401
TASK: Interrogate the new constitution especially chapter 43 1(f) that states that every person has the right to education. The article has not been legislated for enactment, by the parliament as per the fifth schedule article 26 1 (i) of the constitution. What are the implications and issues that might arise if this article is not enacted with immediate effect (30 MKS).
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 24TH OCTOBER 2011
Education, also called learning, is any act that in general sense, leaves a formative impact on the mind, and behaviour of an individual. It is the main process by which the society deliberately conveys knowledge, skills and useful values form generation to generation. Educated persons hence have an optimal and sound state of mind regardless of their state and situation. They are, therefore, able to perceive accurately, think clearly and effectively, to achieve their goals and ambitions.
The right to education has been created and recognized by some jurisdictions: the United Nations and the European Union are among the main international bodies that have kept education at the forefront of the human maturity. Article 2 of the first protocol to the European Union Convention on Human...
The Minister Of Education
Mir Hazar Khan Bijarani
Amna M ahmood
Khadija Zubair Ahmed Khan
` Curriculum Issues In Pakistan
The Government of Pakistan identified 4 medical Colleges for introduction of COME, one from each province. Curriculum was prepared by the faculty of these colleges and launched in 2001 and despite concerted efforts could not be implemented. The purpose of this research was to identify the reasons for delay in implementation of the COME curriculum and to assess the understanding of the stakeholders about COME.
Mixed methods study design was used for data collection. In-depth interviews, mail-in survey questionnaire, and focus group discussions were held with the representatives of federal and provincial governments, Principals of medical colleges, faculty and students of the designated colleges. Rigor was ensured through independent coding and triangulation of data.
The reasons for delay in implementation differed amongst the policy makers and faculty and included thematic issues at the institutional, programmatic and curricular level. Majority (92% of the faculty) felt that COME curriculum couldn’t be implemented without adequate infrastructure. The administrators were willing to provide financial assistance, political support and better coordination and felt...
...parents from all cultural groups?
2. Are building personnel aware of and follow the District Multicultural EducationPolicy?
3. Are the racial/ethnic compositions of staff and student populations in balance?
4. Are inservices on multicultural education provided to the staff?
5. Does the media center provide materials about all groups for all grade levels?
6. Are assessment materials reflective of an awareness of cultural and language bias? Are authentic assessments used?
7. Does the school support dialect and language diversity?
One should examine the school's relationship with parents when assessing a multicultural program. Some specific questions to address are:
1. Do parent organizations and groups include members from each of the groups of the community?
2. Are language interpreters made available for all groups during conferences and meetings?
3. Is feedback from parents representing all groups considered when making educational decisions?
One should examine the practices of the district when assessing a multicultural program. Some specific questions to address are:
1. Does the district have a multicultural educationpolicy?
2. Does the multicultural educationpolicy address a variety of areas (e.g., students, religion, curriculum, language, assessment tools, staff development, personnel, parents)?
3. Does the district have a multicultural...
...PRIMARY SCHOOLS TEACHERS ON INCLUSIVE EDUCATION
SOURAV MUKHOPADHYAY Department of Educational Foundations, University of Botswana E-mail address for correspondence: [email protected]
__________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract: This qualitative case study was designed to investigate teachers’ perceptions of the impact of inclusion of learners with special educational needs on their classes and the practice of inclusive education in Botswana. Thirty-six teachers from six primary schools of the South Central Region of Botswana were engaged in six focus group discussions. Focus group discussions were triangulated with document analysis, classroom observations and access-audit to get an insight about the school and classroom practices. Findings revealed that majority of the general education teachers was not familiar with the concept of inclusive education and did not fully support it. Teachers preferred to include learners with mild disabling conditions compared to learners with severe disabling conditions. Teachers primary concerns were inadequate training, lack of resources, and high studentteacher ratio as barriers to the successful implementation of inclusive education in Botswana. Keywords: inclusive education, Bostwana primary school teachers...
...A note on Inclusive Education Historically, attempts towards development and ensuring equality and justice for all have commonly been found to conform to the norms and systems of the majority. Most of these attempts have articulated the need for inclusion of all segments of the society – however, in most cases this articulation took the form of ‘special care systems’ that ultimately led to further exclusion of these communities – physically, mentally and psychologically. For a variegated and multi-segment society like India it is even more common. CRY, having taken cognizance of this phenomenon, has continually made efforts through the range of interventions to include all segments (social, cultural and economic) in the collective battle for child rights. More specifically, CRY has been advocating for a Common School System (CSS) that has as its bedrock the principles of equality, justice and inclusion. CSS has been defined from varied perspectives reflecting on the diverse backgrounds, knowledge base, skills, concepts, ideologies and experiences of people and institutions involved. An attempt to provide a comprehensive definition of CSS was made while proposing to the CABE Committee on ‘Free and Compulsory Education’ as follows – ‘Common School System means the National System of Education that is founded on the principles of equality and social justice as enshrined in the Constitution and provides education of a...
The rights of education are stressed out in the Convention on the Rights of the Child in article 23, 28 and 29 respectively. In these articles, it is about the right of mentally or physically incapacitates children, the right of children to educations and all that goes with it such as disciplines and among other things.
In article 23 (1) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child is where the States Parties will recognised a mentally or physically disabled child and they should enjoy a full and decent life, to ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate the child's active participation in the community. Children who have any kind of disability have the right to special care and support, as well as all the rights in the Convention, so that they can live full and independent lives.
Article 23(2) and (3) of the convention talks about the special rights of the disable child and the extensions that will be given to the disabled child using available sources which may be deem appropriate to the child's condition and to the circumstances of the parents or others caring for the child. Also, the articles talks about that the assistance will be extended in accordance with paragraph 2 of the present article shall be provided free of charge, whenever possible, taking into account the financial resources of the parents or others caring for the child.
In article 28 (1) states that the States Parties recognize the right of the child...
...Policy Guidelines on Inclusion of Children with Special Needs:
Drawbacks and Challenges in the Philippines and New Zealand
PhD Special Education
Dr. Joel Javiniar
2nd Semester SY 2012-2013
College of Education U.P. Diliman
April 7, 2013
Review of Related Literature.................................................................... 3
Scope and Methodology of the Study...................................................... 5
Glimpse on History.................................................................................... 6
Policy Guidelines of Inclusive Education.................................................. 7
Benefits and Barriers................................................................................. 11
Conclusion and Recommendations.......................................................... 15
The world is gearing towards the reality of inclusion of children with special needs that leads them to the purpose of attaining the sense of belonging within the school community and later on into the whole system of society. Inclusion, inclusive...