Education in the Philippines
During the period of colonization by the United States, Education in the Philippines changed radically, modeled on the system of Education in the United States of the time. After theSecond World War, changes in the US system were no longer automatically reflected in the Philippines, which has since moved in various directions of its own. Filipino children may enter public school at about age four, starting from Nursery up to Kindergarten. At about seven years of age, children enter elementary school (6 to 7 years). This may be followed by secondary school (4 years). Students may then sit for College Entrance Examinations (CEE), after which they may enter tertiary institutions (3 to 5 years). Other types of schools do exist, such as Private schools, Preparatory schools, International schools, Laboratory High Schools and Science High Schools. Several ethnic groups, includingChinese, British, Americans, and Japanese operate their own schools. Elementary schooling is compulsory, but 24% of Filipinos of the relevant age group do not attend, usually due to absence of any school in their area, education being offered in foreign languages only, or financial distress. In July 2009 DepEd acted to overcome the foreign language problem by ordering all elementary schools to move towards mother-tongue based learning initially. The order allows two alternative three-year bridging plans. Depending on the bridging plan adopted, the Filipino and English languages are to be phased in as the language of instruction for other subjects beginning in the third and fourth grades Secondary schooling is of four years duration only. Although secondary schooling is compulsory, some Philippine news media have reported that since the 2000s, many Filipino students who began studying at private high schools, are forced to transfer to public high schools because of increasing cost of living and private school fees and financial distress. Many public elementary/high schools in the country are already overcrowded. The school year in the Philippines starts in June of one year and ends in March of the next, with a two-month summer break for April and May, one week of semestral break (the last week of October), and a week or two of Christmas break. History and development
Further information: Ancient Philippine scripts
In pre-Spanish times, education was informal unstructured in some areas. Children were provided more vocational training and less academics (3 Rs) by their parents and in the houses of tribal tutors. When the Spanish arrived in Manila, though, they were surprised to find a population with a literacy rate using a system of writing known as baybayin which was higher than the literacy rate of Madrid. Spanish period
Main article: Philippines education during Spanish rule
Under the Spanish, education indigenous population was initially left to religious orders, with primary education being overseen by parish friars who generally tolerated the teaching of only religious topics. The friars, recognizing the value of a literate indigenous population, built printing presses to product material in Bambayin. The friars, generally poorly educated themselves, were especially hostile to local population, termed indios learning to speak and read Spanish, which would have made available access to the same body of knowledge the friars had. Secular education was completely neglected; with only one public primary school operating in Manila as late as 1830. A 1714 royal decree creating secular universities was never implemented. A 1702 decree creating seminaries for natives was implemented only in 1772. Access to education by the Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 which provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government; and the establishment of a normal school for male...
During the pre-colonial period, education was still decentralized. Children were provided with more vocational training but fewer academics. Philippine schools were headed by parents or by their tribal tutors. They employed a unique writing system known as baybayin.
When the Spanish first arrived in Manila, they were surprised to find a population with a literacy rate higher than that of Madrid.
During the early Spanish period, most education was conducted by religious orders.
The church and the school both worked together. All Christian villages had schools for students to attend.
Spanish missionaries established schools immediately after reaching the islands.
There was a separate school for boys and girls. The wealthy Filipinos or the Ilustrados were accommodated in the school.
The Educational Decree of 1863 created a free public education system in the Philippines, run by the government. It was the first such education system in Asia.
The Malolos Republic: Also called The First Philippine Republic
Because of the destruction of many schools and to the peace and order condition, all the schools were closed for the time being.
Aguinaldo decreed that all diplomas awarded by UST after 1898 be considered null and void
Article 23 of the Malolos Constitution mandated that public education would...
...Education in the Philippines
The system of education in the Philippines was patterned both from the educational systems of Spain and the United States. However, after the liberation of the Philippines in 1946, the systems have changed radically.
The Department of Education (or DepEd) administers the whole educational system, which also includes the allocation of funds utilized for school services and equipment (such as books, school chairs, etc.), recruitment of teachers for all public schools in the Philippines, and the supervision and organization of the school curricula.
The former education system of the Philippines is composed of 6 years of elementary education starting at the age of 6 or 7, and 4 years of high school education starting at the age of 12 or 13. In this system, education is not compulsory.
However, since June 4, 2012, DepEd started to implement the new K-12 educational system, which includes the new curricula for all schools (see the section). In this system, education is now compulsory.
All public and private schools in the Philippines must start classes from a date mandated by the Department of Education (usually every first Monday of June for public schools only), and must end after each school completes the mandated 200-day school...
...Education in the Philippines is managed and regulated by the Department of Education, commonly referred to as the DepEd in the country. The Department of Education controls the Philippineeducation system, including the curriculum used in schools and the allocation of funds. It also regulates the construction of schools and other educational facilities and the recruitment of teachers and staff.
Before Philippine independence in 1946, the country's education system was patterned on the system of its colonial powers, Spainand the United States. However, after Philippine independence, its educational system changed radically.
Until 2011, the basic education system was composed of six years of elementary education starting at the age of 6, and four years of high school education starting at the age of 12. Further education was provided by technical or vocational schools, or in higher education institutions such as universities. Although the 1987 Constitution stated that elementary education was compulsory, this was never enforced.
In 2011, the country started to transition from its old 10-year basic educational system to a K-12 educational system, as mandated by the Department of Education. The new 12-year system is now compulsory,...
...in the Philippine Educational System
1. Colonial historiography.
Most of the past and present teachers, book authors, and Social Studies consultants give heavier premium to the history of the colonizers in the Philippines, and not to the history of Filipinos. Mostly, this has been the case in the teaching of History subjects from the elementary to tertiary levels and will most likely perpetuate in the next generations to come. The history of the Filipino people and the colonial history of the Philippines are two different topics altogether.
2. Internationalization of the division of labor.
To a certain extent, the Philippine educational system conditions its students to be skillful in arithmetic and computer literacy, fluent in foreign languages (specifically English and Nihonggo), and docile in order to serve as workers of the transnational businesses of the advanced, capitalist countries. Take the case of the call center phenomenon in the Philippines, India and other developing states.
3. Emasculation and demoralization of teachers.
Teachers, more often than not, are victimized by the over-worked and under-paid policy of the system of the past and present dispensations. This leads to the emasculation and demoralization of their ranks. This probably explains why the teaching profession is not attracting the best and the brightest from the crop of students anymore. Expectedly, this will...
...Literacy rate in the Philippines has improved a lot over the last few years- from 72 percent in 1960 to 94 percent in 1990. This is attributed to the increase in both the number of schools built and the level of enrollment in these schools.
The number of schools grew rapidly in all three levels - elementary, secondary, and tertiary. From the mid-1960s up to the early 1990, there was an increase of 58 percent in the elementary schools and 362 percent in the tertiary schools. For the same period, enrollment in all three levels also rose by 120 percent. More than 90 percent of the elementary schools and 60 percent of the secondary schools are publicly owned. However, only 28 percent of the tertiary schools are publicly owned.
A big percentage of tertiary-level students enroll in and finish commerce and business management courses. Table 1 shows the distribution of courses taken, based on School Year 1990-1991. Note that the difference between the number of enrollees in the commerce and business courses and in the engineering and technology courses may be small - 29.2 percent for commerce and business and 20.3 percent for engineering and technology. However, the gap widens in terms of the number of graduates for the said courses.
TABLE 1: TERTIARY ENROLLMENT AND GRADUATION BY FIELD OF STUDY. SY 1990-1991
FIELD OF STUDY ENROLLMENT GRADUATION
No. % No. %
Arts and Sciences 196,711 14.6 29,961 13.6
Teacher Training &...
...girls in each town of the country.
ACT NO. 74 OF 1901: Enacted into law by the Philippine Commission, the Act created the Department of Public Instruction, laid the foundations of the public school system in the Philippines, provided for the establishment of the Philippine Normal School in Manila and made English as the medium of instruction. (In 1949, the Philippine Normal School was made a teachers' college by virtue of RA 416 and, in 1991, it became a full-pledge university by virtue of RA 7168.)
ACT NO. 1870 OF 1908: The law served as the legal basis for the creation of the University of the Philippines.
VOCATIONAL ACT OF1927: Also known as Act No. 3377, the Vocational Act as amended by other acts laid the foundations of vocational education in public schools and made provisions for its support.
EDUCATION ACT OF 1940: Also known as Commonwealth Act No. 586, the Education Act laid the foundations for the present six-year elementary course and made provisions for its support.
REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1947: The Act placed public and private schools under the supervision and control of the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.
REPUBLIC ACT 5250 OF 1966: The Act provided the legal basis for the implementation of a ten-year teacher education program in special education.
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE...
...1998 PESS and 1998 PCER.
The three innovations to the Philippineeducation system had these common objectives:
* To introduce curricular reform curricular reforms in the school organization
* To investigate the modes of delivery, policy structures, and pedagogical philosophies and recommend enrichment thereof
* To align education’s modalities to the needs of the times
2. What are the common findings and recommendations of the three studies conducted in relation to the Philippineeducation system?
A. Common Findings
i. High dropout rates especially in rural areas
ii. Mastery of students in important competencies as shown in achievement levels
iii. High levels of simple literacy among 15-24 year-olds and 15+ year-olds
iv. Highest repetition rate in Grade I
v. Children were generally handicapped by serious deficiencies in their personal constitution and in the skills they needed to successfully go through the absorption of learning
i. Tri-focalization in the management of supervision of basic education, technical-vocational education, and tertiary education
ii. Ensure adequate financing and improve the quality of basic education
iii. Slow and reverse the haphazard expansion of low-quality tertiary education
iv. Provide equitable access to education at all...
...For other uses, see Drive reduction theory (learning theory).
In psychology, a drive theory or drive doctrine  is a theory that attempts to define, analyze or classify the psychological drives. A drive is an “excitatory state produced by a homeostatic disturbance”,  an instinctual need that has the power of driving the behaviour of an individual. 
Drive theory is based on the principle that organisms are born with certain psychological needs and that a negative state of tension is created when these needs are not satisfied. When a need is satisfied, drive is reduced and the organism returns to a state of homeostasis and relaxation. According to the theory, drive tends to increase over time and operates on a feedback control system, much like a thermostat.
Early attachment theory
ReferencesIn Freudian psychoanalysis, drive theory (German: Triebtheorie, German: Trieblehre)  refers to the theory of drives, motivations, or instincts, that have clear objects.  In 1927 Freud said that a drive theory was what was lacking most in psychoanalysis. He was opposed to systematics in psychology, rejecting it as a form of paranoia, and instead classified drives with dichotomies like Eros/Thanatos drives, the drives toward Life and Death, respectively, and sexual/ego drives. 
Freud's Civilization and Its Discontents was published in Germany...