A 2020 Vision:
Education in the next two decades
University of Illinois
Appeared in 2002 in the Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 3(1), 105-114.
It is difficult to predict the future. In our everyday lives, we implicitly depend on a "future will be like the present" prediction. More sophisticated forecasters often predict that potential changes will occur quickly in the short term, ignoring the institutional barriers to change. Similarly, they often are too limited in predicting long-term changes, since it is very difficult to think through the full range of unexpected side-effects that changes in one part of society cause in other parts. With electronic technologies today, change is the only constant. Following Moore’s law (Moore, 1965), microelectronics has produced doubling of performance every year and half since the mid-1960’s, leading to an order-of-magnitude improvement in performance every 5 years. Projecting ahead over the next twenty years, this rate of change would lead to the development of electronic technologies 10,000 times the power of today’s devices. Just to see what this looks like projecting backwards to the 1960’s, everyone wearing an digital watch has the computing power on their wrist comparable to the mainframe computers of the mid 1960’s; anyone with a laptop computer today has the computing power equivalent to the supercomputers of the mid 1980’s. So what will education be like in the year 2020? What should education be like in the year 2020? Technologies enable possibilities but they don’t determine future development. This paper will explore some possibilities enabled by technologies that may have positive implications for education and society more generally. Current contexts for learning and teaching
Schools: Past, present and future?
The dominant form of formal education today is schooling. It is so much a part of our concept of education that we sometime forget that it is not the only framework for learning, and that the current form of schools and schooling has evolved fairly recently. Formal education existed before there were schools. Schooling is education that takes place in building that are mostly isolated from the rest of society, in which most of the learning activities consist of exercises. There is a separation between learning and doing, a separation between the location of learning and the location in which that learning is eventually to be put into practice. Before schools were the dominant form of education, a few privileged learners worked with tutors. The majority of advanced learning, however, took place in apprenticeship settings, formal learning frameworks in which novices acquired knowledge and skills in the context of practice. Most people today associate the term "apprenticeship" with craft apprenticeships, but in fact apprenticeships are the most common form of learning in most professions. Medical internships and residencies, law internships, and other advanced graduate study are all apprenticeships. If apprenticeships are used to teach our doctors, lawyers, and scientists, why are they not used more widely? One of the most important reasons is that apprenticeships are expensive. They take the time of the experts; they take the time of the novices and others involved. It would be impossible to support mass education with conventional apprenticeships. Teleapprenticeships
However, new electronic media enable new forms of education. As more and more of the work in a society occurs online, it becomes possible to engage more and more learners in "teleapprenticeships." These are formal educational frameworks that engage people in learning through their remote participation in ongoing work settings. In face to face apprenticeships, novices start on the periphery of the activity, observing and being given simple tasks that contribute to the going work (Lave & Wenger, 1991). As they acquire expertise, the novices move...
1. What is the purpose of education? To transmit culture? To provide social and economic skills? To develop critical thinking skills? To reform society?
I think that the purpose of education is to get the children ready for real life, and provide them the learning skills, and abilities that they will need.
2. What are schools for? To teach skills and subjects? To encourage personal self-definition? To develop human intelligence? To create patriotic, economically productive citizens?
Schools’ purposes are major in every culture all around the world. In my eyes, schools are to educate the general public, young or old for survival in the next chapter in their life, a degree. They are taught the basic skills and subjects to maneuver on to college, or to start life. After the basics, they are taught more in depth skills and subjects. Schools aren’t good just for that. In schools children also gain life long friends, experiences and learn the social skills they need in life.
3. What should the curriculum contain? Basic skills and subjects? Experiences and projects? Inquiry processes? Critical dialogues?
The curriculum should contain all basic skills and subjects, math, reading, language, writing, science, and geography. Then on a second level, to test the knowledge, and for student’s to learn from other students, projects should come in. As for experiences, I think that students that can relate, should...
Student number: 20134571
Science 1 in the Early Years
Assessment: Item 1- Views of teaching and promoting science of young learners
The pedagogy of play can be hard to understand and part of the reason for this is it’s so difficult to explain how children learn by play because play isn’t simply; it is complex. Each child begins their early childhood education with a set of skills and prior knowledge that is influenced by their family, culture and past experiences (Fellows &Oakley, 2010). The past knowledge should become the foundation for developing an understanding of scientific concepts (Duschl, Schweingruber & Shouse, 2007). Children are naturally inquisitive, creative and aware of the world around them (Campbell & Jobling, 2012). Play is an important development tool and an effective way to teach children scientific concepts while using their prior knowledge (Preston, Mules, Baker & Frost, 2007). Learning science through play shows children that science is useful and enjoyable and is a significant aspect of the real world (Bulunuz, 2013). This essay will review teaching science through play, theorists who support play and the way in which the Australian curriculum and EYLF support play pedagogy.
Science and Play
Play pedagogy is a context for learning through which children organise and make sense of their social worlds, as they engage actively with people, objects and representations. Research shows...
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...INDIA'S GROWTH THROUGH ADVANCEMENT IN EDUCATION SECTOR
*Research scholar,sri Venkateshwara university,gajraula
**Supervisor, Maharaja agarsen college,Delhi university.
Education in India today is nothing like it was in Pre-Independence and Post-Independence Era. Education System in India today went through a lot of changes before it emerged in its present form. Presenteducation system in India is also guided by different objectives and goals as compared to earlier time. Present system of education in India, however is based around the policies of yesteryears. After independence, it was on 29th August 1947, that a Department of Education under the Ministry of Human Resource Development was set up. At that time the mission was the quantitative spread of education facilities. After, 1960’s the efforts were more focussed to provide qualitative education facilities. The present research focus on steps through which our indian education system had gone through. The basic moto of this research is to show that india has done serious efforts in education nd has shotremendous development but it is still lacking in comparison with developed nations. This study is an effort to suggest some measures for its improvement.
Education in every sense is one of...
...Ge’s TwoDecade Transformation Jack Welch’s Leadership
GE’s TwoDecade Transformation: Jack Welch’s Leadership
In April 1981, when Jack Welch became the CEO of GE, US was in recession. There were high interest rates. Strong dollar resulted in country’s highest unemployment rates. In this rapid changing and uncertain environment it was extremely difficult task for him to handle a conglomerate as big as GE and ensure that general confidence among the investors is not lost. His predecessor, Reg Jones, had set the bar extremely high at the company leaving a legacy for Welch to compete with as the new CEO. Also, acquiring new businesses and ensuring that each business unit under the GE umbrella was one of the best in its field was another challenge.
Welch was extremely effective in taking over the GE reins. He challenged each to be ”better than the best” and planned radical changes across the company. Under his guidance, the company expanded dramatically from 1981 to 2001.
* He instilled in everyone a culture of innovation and learning, and incorporated measures related to new product development, technological leadership, and rates of improvement.
* He set the standard for each of business to become #1 or #2 or get out of business.
* Welch categorized business in 3 circles as core, high technology and services and sold off 200 businesses which all together contributed for 25% of sales....
2) A critical review of competencies, skills, theories and approaches
3) Bureaucratic Views
4) Theory X and Theory Y
5) The Systems Theory
6) The Contingency Theory
7) Role Theory
8) Paradigm 1: Christian scientific education management
9) Paradigm 2: Education management
10) Paradigm 3: Education governance and management
11) Collegiality Theory
12) What should Effective Educational Management look like in schools?
14) Reference Page
Schools in South Africa are a unique kind of organisation, with clearly defined goals and policies. Schools function through a hierarchical structure of authority whereby every aspect of the school needs to function accordingly. Schools are also, a dynamic and ever- changing system continually responding to influences both externally and internally. In order for schools to render an effective service of education certain structures need to be in place, and effective undertakings of various management functions need to be prioritised (Naidu, 2008:74). ‘Educational organisations, are human endeavours’ (Owens and Valensky, 2011: 84), and to deal with them effectively is to deal with human social systems. Management effectiveness in schools relates to competencies, skills and approaches. However, school management teams interventions which are aimed at improving their current...
...Ge's TwoDecades Transformation
GE’S Two-Decade Transformation
1.How difficult a challenge did Welch face in 1981? How effectively did he take charge?
When Jack Welch assumed as CEO of GE in April 1981, he had the challenge of revitalizing the competitiveness and productive competency of the company. In 1981 the economy was in a recession and high unemployment combined with high interest rates exacerbated GE’s problems. GE needed to be restructured and this entailed the modernization and streamlining of operations, downsizing the organization, reduction of payrolls and stringent efficiency measures.
Welch Early Priorities: GE’s Restructuring
1 or 2: Fix, Sell or Close
Each business needed to be 1 or 2 competitor in industry. It had to be a broad strategy because it was a broad corporation.
Circle Vision: Services (acquisition), Technology (leading edge), Core (re-invest in productivity) Support, Outside, Ventures.
Internally wanted company “lean and agile,” chip away bureaucracy example laborious strategic planning system or budgeting process (targeted towards competitors), reducing hierarchical levels from 9 to 4 ensured all business reported directly to him
Downsizing, de-staffing, de-layering 123,000 staff cut, operating profits rose dramatically, and set base for strong increase in sales and earnings for second half of decade (exhibit 5)
Replace 12 of 14 business heads, called “Varsity...
...In "Education in America: The Next 25 Years" by Irving H Buchen, he predicts changes that will take place in the next 25 years. He believes that new techniques will solve budget problems facing schools, and also believes these new techniques will be more effective then the more expensive methods used today. Buchen says that changes will be made by choice and "fueled by changing roles for teachers, administrators, students and the entire communities." (Buchen 299)
Buchen states if we could look into the future 25 years we would see "four factors driving educational change: decentralization and educational options; performance evaluation and success measurement; changes in leadership and leadership roles and reconfigurations in learning spaces, places, and times."(Buchen 299) He discusses the many school choices available and how they differ from each other and why parents choose the type of schools they do for their children. The author continues the essay by discussing how educational success is measured, the principals changing roles, parents new roles, real life skills that are being brought into the schools, new learning spaces, and technology introduced into the schools. Finally, he discusses schools where they allow students to have a more active role in the classroom.
I think that Buchen's essay had some really good points. There are going to be a lot of revisions in the future, and change is pretty much...