South Africa has 12.3 million learners, 386,000 teachers and around 48,000 schools – including 390 special needs schools and 1,000 registered private schools. Of all the schools, are high schools (Grade 8 to 12) and the rest are primary schools (Grade 1 to 7). School life spans 13 years - or grades - although the first year of education, grade 0 or "reception year", and the last three years, grade 10, 11 and grade 12 or "matric" are not compulsory. Many Primary schools offer grade 0, although this pre-school year may also be completed at Nursery school. Recently, great advances have been made in the introduction of new technology to the formerly disadvantaged schools. Organizations such as Khanya, (Nguni for enlightenment) have worked to provide computer access in state schools. A recent national initiative has been the creation of "FOCUS" schools. These specialise in specific curriculum areas (Business & Commerce, Engineering, Arts & Culture) and are very similar to the UK specialist schools programme. For university entrance, a "Matriculation Endorsement" is required, although some universities do set their own additional academic requirements. South Africa has a vibrant higher education sector, with more than a million students enrolled in the country’s universities and universities of technology. All the universities are autonomous, reporting to their own councils rather than government. Pre-colonial education
Many African societies placed strong emphasis on traditional forms of education well before the arrival of Europeans. Adults in Khoisan- and Bantu-speaking societies, for example, had extensive responsibilities for transmitting cultural values and skills within kinship-based groups and sometimes within larger organizations, villages, or districts. Education involved oral histories of the group, tales of heroism and treachery, and practice in the skills necessary for survival in a changing environment. Colonial education
The earliest European schools in South Africa was established in the Cape Colony in the late seventeenth century by Dutch Reformed Church elders committed to biblical instruction, which was necessary for church confirmation. In rural areas, itinerant teachers (meesters ) taught basic literacy and math skills. British mission schools proliferated after 1799, when the first members of the London Missionary Society arrived in the Cape Colony. Language soon became a sensitive issue in education. At least two dozen English-language schools operated in rural areas of the Cape Colony by 1827, but their presence rankled among devout Afrikaners, who considered the English language and curriculum irrelevant to rural life and Afrikaner values. Throughout the nineteenth century, Afrikaners resisted government policies aimed at the spread of the English language and British values, and many educated their children at home or in the churches. After British colonial officials began encouraging families to emigrate from Britain to the Cape Colony in 1820, the Colonial Office screened applicants for immigration for background qualifications. They selected educated families, for the most part, to establish a British presence in the Cape Colony, and after their arrival, these parents placed a high priority on education. Throughout this time, most religious schools in the eastern Cape accepted Xhosa children who applied for admission, and in Natal many other Nguni-speaking groups sent their children to mission schools after the mid-nineteenth century. The government also financed teacher training classes for Africans as part of its pacification campaign throughout the nineteenth century. By 1877 some 60 percent of school-age children in Natal were enrolled in school, as were 49 percent in the Cape Colony. In the Afrikaner republics, however, enrollments remained low—only 12 percent in the Orange Free State and 8 percent in the Transvaal—primarily the result of Afrikaner resistance...
...Education of SouthAfrica
A Research Paper
Education was used as a means of control before and during the apartheid. With the ratio of whites to blacks in SouthAfrica so extreme, it is difficult to imagine the minority maintaining power over the vast majority for so long a time. The ability to influence a mass of people through their education, or lack there of, was the backbone of the inequalities throughout South Africa’s history. It was the crux of all economic stratification and fed the fire for continuous racial tensions. Wars were fought for justice and power with protests and violence from both parties. However, few recognized the greater battle and pin pointed the true causation. In 1961, the administrator of the Transvaal so intuitively remarked “we must strive to win the fight against the non-White in the classroom instead of losing it on the battlefield” (Johnson 1982). That is, rather than risking a war against the majority which by numerical standards would definitely be lost, outplay the opponent through manipulation of education. It took several decades, but finally the ANC prevailed and ended the apartheid. Finally, harmony could be restored, segregated living and schooling could be eliminated and SouthAfrica could change for the better. With the disparity of white and black...
...The history of SouthAfrica encompasses over three million years. Ape-like hominids who migrated to SouthAfrica around three million years ago became the first human-like inhabitants of the area now known as SouthAfrica. Representatives of homo erectus gradually replaced them around a million years ago when they also spread across Africa and into Europe and Asia. Homo erectus gave way to homo sapiens around 100,000 years ago. The first homo sapiens formed the Bushman culture of skilled hunter-gatherers. Around 2,500 years ago Bantu peoples migrated into Southern Africa from the Niger River Delta. The Bushmen and the Bantu lived mostly peacefully together, although since neither had any method of writing, researchers know little of this period outside of archaeological artefacts.
The written history of SouthAfrica begins with the arrival of European explorers to the region. The Portuguese, the first Europeans to see SouthAfrica, chose not to colonise it, and instead the Dutch set up a supply depot on the Cape of Good Hope. This depot rapidly developed into the Cape Colony. The British seized the Cape Colony from the Dutch at the end of the 18th century, and the Cape Colony became a British colony. The ever-expanding number of European settlers led to fights with the natives over the rights to land and...
In 1652, Dutch traders founded the city of Cape Town, establishing a stopover point on the spice route at the southern tip of what is now SouthAfrica. The British seized the Cape of Good Hope in 1806. In 1867, diamonds were discovered in SouthAfrica, and in 1886, gold initiated immigration and wealth, further subduing the native inhabitants. The Boers unsuccessfully attempted to resist British control with the Boer War. Under the Union of SouthAfrica beginning in 1910, the British and the Afrikaners ruled together. The National Party, after being voted into power in 1948, began a policy of apartheid. Apartheid is defined as the development of separate races. Apartheid in SouthAfrica favored the minority white race over the black majority. The African National Congress led a defense against apartheid. Many African National Congress leaders fought against apartheid, spending many years in South Africa’s prisons. Among these leaders was Nelson Mandela. Protests, insurgency, and boycotts by many Western nations led to peaceful negotiations to end apartheid. In 1994, the first multi-racial election was held in SouthAfrica officially ending the apartheid era. SouthAfrica is bordered by: Botswana,...
May 6, 2013
SouthAfricaSouthAfrica, a country on the southern tip of Africa, has an area of 471,442sq mi and a population of 44,188,000. It is predominately a black ethnicity with 76% of the population. Although SouthAfrica is Africa's most developed country, most of the black people - rural and urban - are poor, with low standards of living. SouthAfrica has vital natural resources such as diamonds and gold and is rich in other resources such as coal, chromite, copper, iron ore, manga- nese, platinum, phosphate rock, silver, uranium and vanadium (SouthAfrica, 2008). It is obvious that SouthAfrica can sustain their economy through these resources. Through the centuries SouthAfrica has faced difficult time since the Dutch came in 1600’s, in 1700 they started importing slaves establishing the dominance of white over non- whites in the region. The non-whites faced discrimination for years under apartheid and political corruption ran by the whites. Today things look better for the people of SouthAfrica, but they still have many obstacles to overcome. Although SouthAfrica has overcome many travesties throughout...
...National Flag of SouthAfrica
South African Flag Description:
The flag of SouthAfrica consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width - red on the top and blue on the bottom. The red and blue stripes are separated by a green middle stripe which is bordered in white and splits into a horizontal Y. On the left side of the flag there is a black isosceles triangle which is outlined in yellow.
South African Flag Meaning:
Although the colors have no official meaning attached to them the South African flag incorporates the colors black, green and yellow of Nelson Mandela's political party, the African National Congress and the former Boer republics flags (red, white, and blue). The Y shape represents the convergence of South Africa's diverse society and the desire for unity. The South African flag is basically made up of former South African flags and the past meanings of the colors were Red for bloodshed, blue of open blue skies, green for the land, black for the black people, white for the European people and yellow for the natural resources such as gold.
South African Flag History:
The South African flag was adopted on April 27, 1994 after Nelson Mandela was elected President. A new national flag was adopted to signify the dawn of a...
...policy as an instrument of control, oppression and exploitation was one of the factors that triggered the two great political struggles that defined SouthAfrica in the twentieth century – the struggle of the Afrikaners against British imperialism and the struggle of the black community against white rule”
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, 25 November 2002, HIGHER EDUCATION ACT, 1997
The language policy has been used in the past to control, exploit and separate through the instruction of the governments, both colonial and apartheid, yet through the implementation of the controversial language policies, resistance, struggle and affirmation have occurred all in pursuit of democracy.
The British Colony was formalised in 1814 through the government of Lord Charles Sommerset and when in power, due to the poor records of the ‘old system’ of education and the country in general by the Afrikaners, they deemed them too unworthy, biased and racist to hold official positions in Government. This along with the emancipication of slaves “this practice placed the slave owner in an inferior position to his slave” (Giliomee, H & Mbenga B, 2007 pg 91) created tension between the Afrikaner ‘volk’ and the British. The desire for education in the Afrikaans community was very low. The English found that the Dutch/Afrikaner volk had “neglected education, stifled trade, supported slavery” (Giliomee, H...
...factors the influence the design of C2005 currently being used in South African schools.
Influence of politics on curriculum
Influence of society on curriculum
Influence of economy on curriculum
Influence of technology on curriculum
Influence of environment on curriculum
Influence of child psychology on curriculum.
From your experience as a student and teacher, you may have noticed how politics influence education. This is whyeducation is regarded as a political activity. National ideology and philosophy have a tremendous influence on the education system because:
Politics determine and define the goals, content, learning experiences and evaluation strategies in education.
Curricular materials and their interpretation are usually heavily influenced by political considerations.
Political considerations may play a part in the hiring of personnel.
Funding of education is greatly influenced by politics.
Entry into educational institutions and the examination systems are heavily influenced by politics.
C2005 and the Revised National Curriculum Statement were two steps in the process of curriculum revision undertaken since 1994. Curriculum revision was undertaken in three mains stages or waves: the first involved the ‘cleansing’ of the curriculum of its racist and sexist elements in the immediate aftermath of the election. The second involved the...
...Education is the foundation, the root, the sprout from which our current and next generation will lead and engender from. Therefore, having the best educational system in the world ensures me, you and our children a fighting change, albeit pugnacious. This statement is disseminated and broadcasted as fact and the average Joe accepts it as the truth. However, this essay will point directly at the historical and political impediment existing in and on the emotion of the number one South African, me. My essay taunts the question:”As a 40 year old white Afrikaans man, where do I stand in the South African educational system?”, and does it conform to the statement to be the best in the world.
I ask the question in all honesty and respect. I am reflecting on education I attained as an Afrikaans “silver spoon in the mouth” little brat right through to my more sensible self Technical College tuition and my current B-COM studies as a self reliant adult.
Historically, my peers and I were advantaged by the system in place, much more than our counterparts in the townships and homelands. I believe that the powers ruled then had only the best intentions for the educational portfolio, albeit it was one-sided in the racial arena. The story of our lives. The institutions that were build and the standards academically set was internationally very high. I firmly believe this basis where we as the new generation sprung from, was...