“When right of education is denounced”
Education is a universal, fundamental human right, recognized by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and reaffirmed in international human rights conventions. In this era of technology, advancement and globalization, education is the key to success and peace. Education is considered as the cheapest defense of a nation. But the worst condition of education in Pakistan reflects the fact that it is unable to defend its own sector. Though 62 years have passed and 23 policies and action plans have been introduced yet the educational sector is waiting for an effective educational reforms. With respect to Human Development Index, Pakistan has been placed by UNDP at 136th position, lower than some of its regional neighbors like Sri Lanka, Maldives, India and Myanmar mainly due to its low literacy rate and low primary level enrolment. In different reports the Ministry of Education claimed that literacy in Pakistan is over 50%, but open sources disagree with it and they say that it is merely 35%. Ratio of budget indicates the level of importance given by a nation to the education. Historically, Pakistan has been spending less on education, as compared to other countries in the region. Pakistan spends less than 2% of its GDP on education which is less than Iran, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Maldives the neighboring countries of Pakistan, the world standard stands at 5% of the GDP. With such non serious attitude towards Education, there remains a dearth of well educated and skillful individuals. Among the SAARC Nations, Pakistan is at the sixth and at the 159th position among the 174 World countries.
Pakistan’s Constitution, framed in 1973, declared the country’s commitment to providing education for all. According to Article 37, “the State shall:- Remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory secondary education within the minimum possible period. Make technical and professional education generally available and higher education equally accessible to all on the basis of merit”.
Recently, through a Constitutional Amendment No 18, free and compulsory education for the children aged 5 to 16 years has been declared a fundamental right. Article 25-A of the Constitutions provides that; “The state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as may be determined by the law.”
From the reports prepared by UNESCO and the literacy data prepared by Statistics Division, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Govt. of Pakistan it is evident that as a nation we have been deprived off from our basic right to education, as a result today we stand towards the end in the line of literate nations. What had been are problems and what are the barriers, confronting our way to literacy, are some of the questions need our attention. In the following paragraphs we examine the critical situation and obstacles that we face today in this regard.
Poverty is the biggest disadvantage and the largest obstacle in the development of our country. Pakistan is classified into the 3rd World countries mainly due to poverty with education or Literacy Rate. Our country is an agricultural country therefore more than 68% of the population is engaged in farming and its byproducts. The people in this category are unable to feed their families fully and as a result, development stops while on the other hand population increases. The people where 40% of population is below the poverty line cannot think of sending their children to schools. According to UNICEF, 17.6% children work and support their families. So, in such conditions, role and support of Government becomes inevitable but Government is continuously paying no serious attention to these demands.
The ever increasing population of the Pakistan is another hindrance in the correct and efficient caring of the family. That is why many people are unable to provide such level of education to their...
...Report on Education of Pakistan
Our great Quaid-e-Azam Muhamad Ali Jinnah said:
“The importance of education and the right type of education cannot be over emphasized. If we are to make any real, speedy and substantial progress, we must earnestly tackle this question and bring our educational policy and programme on the lines suited to the genius of our people, consonant with our history and culture, and having regard to the modern conditions and vast developments that have taken place all over the world”.
.“All Pakistan Educational Conference at Karachi: November, 27, 1947”
• Situation Analysis.
• Education For all
• Problems / Recommendations
Education has always been considered as one of the main factors for socioeconomic and subsequently the national development because of its ability to raise the quality and productivity of the human capital. Education also creates awareness, tolerance, self esteem and confidence, which empower people to defend their rights, reduce poverty and inequality and improve in health, status and good governance in implementation of socio economic policies. It also enables the people to protect their ideological inspiration and help in developing national cohesion....
...13.CENTRAL ISSUES AND PROBLEMS IN PAKISTANEDUCATION SYSTEM AND THEIR NEEDED REFORMS:
The existing education delivery system is not meeting the needs and aspirations of the society as such particularly, it is a challenge to the provinces and districts for the 21st century. Moreover, prior to devolution, the policy and planning have been undertaken by the central and provincial governments without taking into account the ground realities and without the participation of community. The main objectives of the devolution plan is to empower the community at the grassroots level in planning, management, resource mobilization and utilization, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the education system to improve the service delivery at that level. The main inherent issues of education systems are:
* teachers absenteeism,
* high drop out rates particularly at primary level,
* high repetition rates,
* low completion rates,
* inequalities by gender,
* location and social groups,
* low literacy rate and
* unsatisfactory performance of schools,
these issues have been addressed under DOP through empowerment of local communities.
The present government has initiated political and administrative devolution under its reforms agenda under Local Government Plan 2000. The Local Government Ordinance was promulgated on 14th August 2001. Under devolution, political...
...Education Reform In Pakistan – Challenges and Prospects
Education can be dangerous. It is very difficult to make it not
dangerous. In fact, it is almost impossible. The only way you can
prevent education from being dangerous is to try and develop an
educational system in which the pupil is exposed to no ideas
whatsoever. [Robert Hutchins]
The connection between education and human security – defined in a broad sense – is
immediate and direct. How future Pakistanis will live, the qua lity of their lives, the
kinds of employment available, the political system to be, the manner in which
citizens will resolve conflicts between themselves, and the country’s relationship to
the global community of nations, will ultimately be determined by the content and
quality of their education.
Education also provides a society with its scientists, engineers, managers, technicians,
and trained and trainable people. In a world where economies are increasingly based
upon the availability of sophisticated skills and a well- informed citizenry, education
in rapidly progressing countries is considered a sound investment into the future.
Belgium or Holland, for example, have few natural resources but have political and
economic power that is disproportionately large. On the other hand, Pakistan’s
greatest need – and its single greatest failure – is its tragic...
...The state of children education in Pakistan; situational analysis and future challenges
Faculty Member Dept of Social Sciences
University of Management & Technology, Lahore.
Protection of the rights of children constitutes a significant aspect of the responsibilities of the State. As a major helpless section of the society, children rely on the State for ensuring that a reliable, capable and approachable institutional structure exists for perpetuation of their rights. Within the perspective of children rights, there is an array of institutions liable for addressing and ensuring children’s rights. Education is the fundamental right of every child on it rests the development of the nation. The state of children education in Pakistan thus presents a very miserable picture. South Asia is illiterate region in the world and Pakistan is most illiterate country in the region. Only 56% children are enrolled in primary school. The Govt of Pakistan has taken some imitative for the children education. But situation is still dismal. The paper will analyze the status of the children education in Pakistan and will explore the problems and prospectus regarding future challenges of their rights. Child is father of man (proverb). They deserve our attention and allocation of resources for...
...Education System in Pakistan
In Human development Report Pakistan is placed at 136th position for having just 49.9% educated population. In addition to that, Pakistan is ranked at 113th out of 120 registered UN members according to the research conducted by UNESCO et. all. Some of the very basic flaws of the education system in Pakistan contribute to the economic, ethnic and sociopolitical crisis within the country.
Flaws of Education System in Pakistan
Firstly, the education system of Pakistan is based on unequal lines. Medium of education is different in both, public and private sector. This create a sort of disparity among people, dividing them into two segments. Such a distraught infrastructure is a basic cause of high illiteracy rate in Pakistan and high drop out rates in rural areas and public school.
Secondly, regional disparity is also a major cause. The schools in Balochistan (the largest province of Pakistan by Area) are not that much groomed as that of Punjab (the largest province Of Pakistan by Population). In FATA, the literacy rate is deplorable constituting 29.5% in males and 3% in females.
The third major cause of flawed education system in Pakistan is gender discrimination. The current primary school ratio of boys and girls is...
Subject: SOCL 325 (gender)
Crisis of women’s education in Pakistan
Education is the most important and fundamental factor for any country. Inequality in education of men and women is highly immoral. Pakistan is facing major illiteracy issue. The main issue in the crisis is due to more preference to male than female. The girls’ education in the country is lagging behind with barriers for them to come to school regularly to complete the full cycle of primary education. Clearly women have not been able to exercise fully their right to an education.
Gender issues in Pakistan is highly challenging, in particular because of the strong hold of Cultural conservatism experienced in some areas such as North West Frontier Province, which by and large determines social norms, values and principles. Inequalities are highly insidious in Pakistan, as is clearly reflected in educational requirements for its people. Rich go to private schools and the poor go to public schools creating a big difference in the education sector. Poverty is widespread especially in rural Pakistan.
Actually the biggest paradox in Pakistan is the absence of a legal guarantee of free and compulsory primary education, which indeed is a highly critical aspect for the...
...CENTER FOR UNIVERSAL EDUCATION WORKING PAPER 2 | JUNE 2010
ASSESSING THE LINKS BETWEEN EDUCATION AND MILITANCY IN PAKISTAN
Rebecca Winthrop Corinne Graff
Rebecca Winthrop is a Fellow and Co-Director of the Center for Universal Education at Brookings. Corinne Graff is a Fellow in the Center for Universal Education at Brookings.
Acknowledgments: We would like to thank Kate Anderson Simons, Mohammad Mohsin Ali and Erum Haider, who provided excellent research assistance, for their tireless efforts. Special thanks also go to: Anda Adams, Cyril Almeida, Munir Akram, Javed Hasan Aly, Tahir Andrabi, Mehnaz Aziz, Masooda Bano, Josh Busby, Jason Campbell, Gerald Chauvet, Jishnu Das, David Gartner, Sally Gear, Edward Gonzalez, Randy Hattﬁeld, Ward Heneveld, Susan Hirshberg, Khadim Hussain, Bruce Jones, Riaz Mohammad Khan, Parag Khanna, Hamida Khuhro, Molly Kinder, Asim Ijaz Khwaja, Mitch Kirby, Maleeha Lodhi, Tanvi Madan, Sabiha Mansoor, LeAnna Marr, Chris Pagen, Malcolm Phelps, Bruce Riedel, Jacob Shapiro, Mao-Lin Shen, Marshall Smith, Savannah ThomasArrigo, Jacques van der Gaag and Waleed Ziad. We are also grateful for the discussions with other colleagues at the United States Agency for International Development and the Embassy of the United States in...
...The Education System in Pakistan
At independence, Pakistan had a poorly educated population and few schools or universities. Although the education system has expanded greatly since then, debate continues about the curriculum, and, except in a few elite institutions, quality remained a crucial concern of educators in the early 1990s.
Adult literacy is low, but improving. In 1992 more than 36 percent of adults over fifteen were literate, compared with 21 percent in 1970. The rate of improvement is highlighted by the 50 percent literacy achieved among those aged fifteen to nineteen in 1990. School enrollment also increased, from 19 percent of those aged six to twenty-three in 1980 to 24 percent in 1990. However, by 1992 the population over twenty-five had a mean of only 1.9 years of schooling. This fact explains the minimal criteria for being considered literate: having the ability to both read and write (with understanding) a short, simple statement on everyday life.
Relatively limited resources have been allocated to education, although there has been improvement in recent decades. In 1960 public expenditure on education was only 1.1 percent of the gross national product (GNP); by 1990 the figure had risen to 3.4 percent. This amount compared poorly with the 33.9 percent being spent on defense in 1993. In 1990 Pakistan was tied for fourth place in the world in its ratio...