Education Reform In Pakistan – Challenges and Prospects
Education can be dangerous. It is very difficult to make it not dangerous. In fact, it is almost impossible. The only way you can prevent education from being dangerous is to try and develop an educational system in which the pupil is exposed to no ideas whatsoever. [Robert Hutchins]
The connection between education and human security – defined in a broad sense – is immediate and direct. How future Pakistanis will live, the qua lity of their lives, the kinds of employment available, the political system to be, the manner in which citizens will resolve conflicts between themselves, and the country’s relationship to the global community of nations, will ultimately be determined by the content and quality of their education.
Education also provides a society with its scientists, engineers, managers, technicians, and trained and trainable people. In a world where economies are increasingly based upon the availability of sophisticated skills and a well- informed citizenry, education in rapidly progressing countries is considered a sound investment into the future. Belgium or Holland, for example, have few natural resources but have political and economic power that is disproportionately large. On the other hand, Pakistan’s greatest need – and its single greatest failure – is its tragic failure to educate its citizens. Only 25 per cent of the Pakistani work- force is literate, and female literacy in two of the four provinces, Balochistan and North West Frontier Province, is lower than in sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, education remains a low-priority issue for the Pakistani state, evident both from historically low levels of funding and a chronic inability to take major steps towards reform now that funding is likely to increase. What is true today was true nearly six decades ago as well. In fact, one might argue that the origins of the present situation are to be found at the time when the future of the nascent state was being charted out. Unlike Jawaharlal Nehru, Pakistan’s founder, Mohammed Ali Jinnah did not put educational and scientific development at the top of his agenda. Education was viewed as just one of several things that the new Pakistan would eventually need and no particular vision in this regard was articulated. Indeed, the allocations of the First Five-Year Plan were pitifully small and wholly inadequate for producing universal literacy or a system of proper schools 1 . Insufficient emphasis was given to technical and vocational education.
In subsequent decades, where military spending became steadily larger, the blame for a failing school system was all too often put upon inadequate budgets. But this was only part of the problem – there are more fundamental, but less quantifiable, issues of efficiency, purpose, and direction. Unless these are squarely faced, more funding by itself will do little.
As a country that has acquired an image of violence and intolerance, it has been frequently presumed in the international media that the madrassas are the source of Pakistan’s increasingly intolerant and violent culture. While this may be a partial contributory factor, the real problem lies in the public school system – which subsequently feeds into the higher education system of colleges and universities.
Organizational Structure of Education
Analysis requires, at the first step, an understanding of the organizational structure of the education system, its governing mechanisms, and its genesis. In this essay, these can only be touched upon. Details may be found in ref. 2 . The Pakistani education system is seven-layered (Table 1). The Federal Ministry of Education controls all matters related to education up to the intermediate level as well as colleges, and the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is responsible for universities 3 .
Kachi (or nursery)
Primary school (grades 1-5)
Middle school (grades...
...“When right of education is denounced”
Education is a universal, fundamental human right, recognized by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and reaffirmed in international human rights conventions. In this era of technology, advancement and globalization, education is the key to success and peace. Education is considered as the cheapest defense of a nation. But the worst condition of education inPakistan reflects the fact that it is unable to defend its own sector. Though 62 years have passed and 23 policies and action plans have been introduced yet the educational sector is waiting for an effective educational reforms. With respect to Human Development Index, Pakistan has been placed by UNDP at 136th position, lower than some of its regional neighbors like Sri Lanka, Maldives, India and Myanmar mainly due to its low literacy rate and low primary level enrolment. In different reports the Ministry of Education claimed that literacy in Pakistan is over 50%, but open sources disagree with it and they say that it is merely 35%. Ratio of budget indicates the level of importance given by a nation to the education. Historically, Pakistan has been spending less on education, as compared to other countries in the region. Pakistan spends less than 2% of its GDP on education...
...Report on Education of Pakistan
Our great Quaid-e-Azam Muhamad Ali Jinnah said:
“The importance of education and the right type of education cannot be over emphasized. If we are to make any real, speedy and substantial progress, we must earnestly tackle this question and bring our educational policy and programme on the lines suited to the genius of our people, consonant with our history and culture, and having regard to the modern conditions and vast developments that have taken place all over the world”.
.“All Pakistan Educational Conference at Karachi: November, 27, 1947”
• Situation Analysis.
• Education For all
• Problems / Recommendations
Education has always been considered as one of the main factors for socioeconomic and subsequently the national development because of its ability to raise the quality and productivity of the human capital. Education also creates awareness, tolerance, self esteem and confidence, which empower people to defend their rights, reduce poverty and inequality and improve in health, status and good governance in implementation of socio economic policies. It also enables the people to protect their ideological inspiration and help in developing national cohesion....
...13.CENTRAL ISSUES AND PROBLEMS IN PAKISTANEDUCATION SYSTEM AND THEIR NEEDED REFORMS:
The existing education delivery system is not meeting the needs and aspirations of the society as such particularly, it is a challenge to the provinces and districts for the 21st century. Moreover, prior to devolution, the policy and planning have been undertaken by the central and provincial governments without taking into account the ground realities and without the participation of community. The main objectives of the devolution plan is to empower the community at the grassroots level in planning, management, resource mobilization and utilization, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the education system to improve the service delivery at that level. The main inherent issues of education systems are:
* teachers absenteeism,
* high drop out rates particularly at primary level,
* high repetition rates,
* low completion rates,
* inequalities by gender,
* location and social groups,
* low literacy rate and
* unsatisfactory performance of schools,
these issues have been addressed under DOP through empowerment of local communities.
The present government has initiated political and administrative devolution under its reforms agenda under Local Government Plan 2000. The Local Government Ordinance was promulgated on 14th August 2001. Under devolution, political...
...The state of children education in Pakistan; situational analysis and future challenges
Faculty Member Dept of Social Sciences
University of Management & Technology, Lahore.
Protection of the rights of children constitutes a significant aspect of the responsibilities of the State. As a major helpless section of the society, children rely on the State for ensuring that a reliable, capable and approachable institutional structure exists for perpetuation of their rights. Within the perspective of children rights, there is an array of institutions liable for addressing and ensuring children’s rights. Education is the fundamental right of every child on it rests the development of the nation. The state of children education in Pakistan thus presents a very miserable picture. South Asia is illiterate region in the world and Pakistan is most illiterate country in the region. Only 56% children are enrolled in primary school. The Govt of Pakistan has taken some imitative for the children education. But situation is still dismal. The paper will analyze the status of the children education in Pakistan and will explore the problems and prospectus regarding future challenges of their rights. Child is father of man (proverb). They deserve our attention and allocation of resources for...
...Education System in Pakistan
In Human development Report Pakistan is placed at 136th position for having just 49.9% educated population. In addition to that, Pakistan is ranked at 113th out of 120 registered UN members according to the research conducted by UNESCO et. all. Some of the very basic flaws of the education system in Pakistan contribute to the economic, ethnic and sociopolitical crisis within the country.
Flaws of Education System in Pakistan
Firstly, the education system of Pakistan is based on unequal lines. Medium of education is different in both, public and private sector. This create a sort of disparity among people, dividing them into two segments. Such a distraught infrastructure is a basic cause of high illiteracy rate in Pakistan and high drop out rates in rural areas and public school.
Secondly, regional disparity is also a major cause. The schools in Balochistan (the largest province of Pakistan by Area) are not that much groomed as that of Punjab (the largest province Of Pakistan by Population). In FATA, the literacy rate is deplorable constituting 29.5% in males and 3% in females.
The third major cause of flawed education system in Pakistan is gender discrimination. The current primary school ratio of boys and girls is...
Subject: SOCL 325 (gender)
Crisis of women’s education in Pakistan
Education is the most important and fundamental factor for any country. Inequality in education of men and women is highly immoral. Pakistan is facing major illiteracy issue. The main issue in the crisis is due to more preference to male than female. The girls’ education in the country is lagging behind with barriers for them to come to school regularly to complete the full cycle of primary education. Clearly women have not been able to exercise fully their right to an education.
Gender issues in Pakistan is highly challenging, in particular because of the strong hold of Cultural conservatism experienced in some areas such as North West Frontier Province, which by and large determines social norms, values and principles. Inequalities are highly insidious in Pakistan, as is clearly reflected in educational requirements for its people. Rich go to private schools and the poor go to public schools creating a big difference in the education sector. Poverty is widespread especially in rural Pakistan.
Actually the biggest paradox in Pakistan is the absence of a legal guarantee of free and compulsory primary education, which indeed is a highly critical aspect for the...
...The Education System in Pakistan
At independence, Pakistan had a poorly educated population and few schools or universities. Although the education system has expanded greatly since then, debate continues about the curriculum, and, except in a few elite institutions, quality remained a crucial concern of educators in the early 1990s.
Adult literacy is low, but improving. In 1992 more than 36 percent of adults over fifteen were literate, compared with 21 percent in 1970. The rate of improvement is highlighted by the 50 percent literacy achieved among those aged fifteen to nineteen in 1990. School enrollment also increased, from 19 percent of those aged six to twenty-three in 1980 to 24 percent in 1990. However, by 1992 the population over twenty-five had a mean of only 1.9 years of schooling. This fact explains the minimal criteria for being considered literate: having the ability to both read and write (with understanding) a short, simple statement on everyday life.
Relatively limited resources have been allocated to education, although there has been improvement in recent decades. In 1960 public expenditure on education was only 1.1 percent of the gross national product (GNP); by 1990 the figure had risen to 3.4 percent. This amount compared poorly with the 33.9 percent being spent on defense in 1993. In 1990 Pakistan was tied for fourth place in the world in its ratio...
...Women education in PakistanEducation plays a pivotal role in developing human capital in any society. Education has become a universal human right all around the globe. Article thirty seven of the Constitution of Pakistan stipulates that education is a fundamental right of every citizen, but still gender discrepancies exist in educational sector. According to Human Development Report (2011) of United Nations Development Program, ratio of female to male with at least secondary education is 0.502, and public expenditure on education amounts to only 2.7% of the GDP of the country.(2)
Patriarchal values heavily govern the social structure in Pakistani society. Home has been defined as a woman's legitimate ideological and physical space where she performs her reproductive role as a mother and wife, while a man dominates the world outside the home and performs his productive role as a breadwinner. Men and women are conceptually segregated into two distinct worlds. The household resources are allocated in the favor of sons (male members of the family) due to their productive role. Education for boys is prioritized vis-a-vis girls, because it is perceived that boys must be equipped with educational skills to compete for resources in public arena, while girls have to specialize in domestic skills to be good mothers and wives, hence,...