Education in England
Education in England is overseen by the Department for Education and the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills. Local authorities (LAs) take responsibility for implementing policy for public education and state schools at a local level. The education system is divided into nursery (ages 3–4), primary education (ages 4–11), secondary education (ages 11–18) and tertiary education (ages 18+). Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged between 5 and 17 (from 2013, and up to 18 from 2015), either at school or otherwise, with a child beginning primary education during the school year he or she turns 5. Students may then continue their secondary studies for a further two years (sixth form), leading most typically to A-level qualifications, although other qualifications and courses exist, including Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC) qualifications, the International Baccalaureate (IB) and the Cambridge Pre-U. The leaving age for compulsory education was raised to 18 by the Education and Skills Act 2008. The change takes effect in 2013 for 16-year-olds and 2015 for 17-year-olds. State-provided schooling and sixth form education is paid for by taxes. England also has a tradition of independent schooling, but parents may choose to educate their children by any suitable means. Higher education often begins with a three-year bachelor's degree. Postgraduate degrees include master's degrees, either taught or by research, and the doctorate, a research degree that usually takes at least three years. Universities require a Royal Charter in order to issue degrees, and all but one are financed by the state via tuition fees, which cost up to £9,000 a term for English, Welsh and EU students. Department for Education
Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
Secretary of State (Education): Michael Gove
Minister for Universities and Science (BIS): David Willets
National education budget (2008–09)
...The education system in England
The pre-school sector includes a patchwork quilt of places provided by state, voluntary and private nurseries, childminders and playgroups - available to children between the ages of two and five.
At the end of 2000 there were 937,000 pre-school places available - 264,000 in day nurseries, 353,000 in playgroups and other settings and 320,000 with childminders.
The government has promised to improve the quality of education available for this age group and to increase the quantity of available places.
All four year olds are now promised a part-time place of five morning or afternoon sessions per week, and the government has set a target of providing a place for two thirds of three year olds by 2002.
The push to make more pre-school places available has prompted many primary schools to open nursery classes, offering parents a free place in classes that often become "feeder" classes to the first formal year of school.
While this has benefited the budgets of primary schools, there have been claims that this has forced thousands of playgroups to close.
Between 2000 and 2001 provisional official statistics show there were 300 more day nurseries - a rise of 3%. These accounted for 20,900 more places (8% more).
Playgroups declined by the same number, 300 or 2% of the total - a loss of 22,900 places (6%).
And there were 3,300 (4%) fewer...
...What is the structure of education from early years to post-compulsory education.
a. Summarise entitlement and provision for early years education.
b. Explain the characteristics of the different types of schools in relation to educational stage(s) and school governance.
c. Explain the post-16 options for young people and adults.
a) The ‘early years’ is a government definition for the education of children from birth up to the age of five, which includes pre-school and the ‘reception’ year at primary school. All childcare providers except mother and toddler groups, nannies and short-term crèches have to be registered and inspected by Ofsted, the Office for Standards in Education.
There are currently a number of options for the provision of early years education. These are:-
• Childminders – look after children under 12 in their own home
• Nannies and home-based carers - provide care for children in your home
• Sure Start Children’s Centres – provide early years education for children, full day care, short-term care, health and family support
• Preschools and playgroups - provide part-time play and early learning for under fives, usually run by voluntary groups
• Day Nurseries - often based in workplaces and run as businesses or by voluntary groups for children from birth to five years old
• Nursery schools - for children between three and five years old,...
...The structure of education from early years to post-compulsory education
Entitlement & provision for early years education.
As part of the every child matters agenda and the Childcare Act 2006 every child aged 3 & 4 is entitled to receive part time early years education of up to 12.5 hours per week for 38 weeks of the year to ensure that they receive up to 2 years free education before reaching school age.
The characteristics of schools & school governance.
All schools are seeking to enforce expectations in terms of meeting the national curriculum.
Under the National Curriculum there are four Key Stages to education:
Foundation 4 year olds
Key Stage 1 5 to 7 year olds
Key Stage 2 7 to 11 year olds
Key Stage 3 11 to 14 year olds
Key Stage 4 14 to 16 year olds
Mainstream State Schools
All children in England aged 5 to 16 are entitled to free education at a state school, most go to state schools.
Nursery school: 3 to 4 year olds
Reception: 4 year olds
Primary: 5 to 11 year olds (Key Stage 1 & 2)
Secondary: 11 to 16 (Key Stage 3 & 4)
There are 4 main types of state school: Community schools, Foundation & Trust schools, Voluntary aided schools, Voluntary Controlled schools.
These are run & owned by the local authority & cover all 4 Key Stages....
...responsibilities of national and local government for education policy and practice
National government are responsible for devising policies and ensuring that they are implemented. The UK government is split into two departments that deal with education in England. The first is the Department for Education who work with children aged up to 19, with any issues they may have from child protection to education matters. Their aim is to improve the opportunities and experiences for all children and the professionals working with them by focusing on giving more support for the poorest and most vulnerable children in England, to ensure they all receive the same level of education and equal opportunities as their peers regardless of background. As well as policy setting they are looking at new ways of developing the quality of services for children under the five outcomes of Every Child Matters. They have also set up and administer school league tables, which do not show how much progress has been made, just high achievement and not all pupils are going to be academic achievers and this will not recommend a school to prospective parents. It should not just publicise results from A* to C at GCSE, but show how much progress has been made by the students. Not all students are going to be academic and would prefer to study vocational courses and this should be taken into account....
...each key stage, your child’s teacher will formally assess their performance to measure your child’s progress
year 1 and 2 KS2
Year 3,4,5 and 6 KS3
Year 7,8 and 9 KS4
Year 10 and 11 Lower Sixth form year 12
Higher sixth form
Age of chid Under 5s 5 to 7 years 7 to 11 years 11 to 14 years 14 to 16 years 16 to 17 years 17 to 19 years
Science maths English
Geography History Physical Education Art and Design Computing Languages Citizenship Sex and relationship Education Religious Education Design Tec Foundation subjects Music Testing
KS1 Year 1 Phonics screening check Year 2 SAT’s
KS2 Year 2 SAT’s
KS3 Teaching assessments and some children take GCSE’s KS4
Most children take GCSEs or other national qualifications AS levels
Many pupils remain at school after the minimum leaving age of 16. Education for 16 to 19 year olds is usually referred to as Sixth Form, with the Lower Sixth and Upper Sixth. In the Lower Sixth, students study for AS level exams, usually in 3 or 4 subjects, leading onto A level exams (Advanced Level) usually in 3 subjects in the Upper Sixth. The usual route to university and college is through the A level system, depending on the grades attained in these examinations.
...Education in Britain is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 5-16. About 93 percent of all children are educated in state schools and the rest attend private schools. Primary school. Schoolchildren attend a primary school for 6 years (5 to 11 years). When students transfer to Secondary School at the age of 11, they do not take any examination, but their reports are sent on from the Primary School. Secondary School. Most children – over 80 percent – go to a comprehensive school. “Comprehensive” means all-inclusive. They admit pupils of all abilities. Pupils in all state in schools in England and Wales study 10 main subjects, among them: English, Mathematics, Science, History, Geography, Art, Music, Physical Education, Information Technology. Religious education is also taught. Attainment tests are given at the ages of 7, 11 and 14. At the age of 16 students sit the exams in as many subjects as possible. Weak students may only sit for three or four subjects. Better students take ten subjects. At the age of 16 about two thirds of these pupils leave school and get jobs. About one-third stay on at school until the age of 18, preparing themselves for higher education. The 6th Form. More ambitious pupils continue to study in the 6th form. They stay on at school for one or two years to prepare themselves for university. They have only three or four main subjects, which are necessary to pass...
...In this report I will precede to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the 1988 Conservative Education Reform Act and the 1997 New Labour Education Reform. I will discuss the effectiveness of each reform and I will elaborate on the implications for pupils and society.
The 1988 Conservative Education Reform Act established the National Curriculum, the main advantage as cited in Haralambos & Holborn, (2000), was that it set a consistent standard across the country, in an attempt to promote equality. Children were regularly assessed to establish whether they were meeting key stages appropriate to their development, and to determine weaknesses that required improvement. The issue with key stage testing is that pupils feel pressured and stressed by the constant assessments. To ensure equality the National Curriculum teaches the same subjects, throughout the country and has been a considerable success to the education system. The drawback with the national curriculum is that everyone has to study the same subjects; this raises an issue with the lack of individual choice. As referred to in Blundell, (2001) results from the tests were drawn up into league tables which caused an unethical division of the education system. Parents, when selecting a school look at the league tables and this can be very misleading, as some of the best schools in Britain do poor in these league tables.
The childminders are inspected by Ofsted in England and Estyn - CSSIW (care and social services inspectorate in Wales) in Wales, to ensure they provide a safe and stimulating environment for the children that they care for.
The childminder will have made their own set of policies and be familiar with the National minimum standards for regulated childcare. Have Paediatric First aid training, Food health and Hygiene Certificate and Safe Guarding Children / Child Protection Certificates that are approved by their local authority.
Playgroups provide short sessions of childcare, usually 2 – 3 hours, during mornings or afternoons. Often community led and require parental involvement. The children play with toys and parents lead activities – crafts, drawing, stories and singing. Refreshments are available. They are held in schools, community halls, and community centres. Parents can apply for funding from different sources to help with buying toys and equipment for these sessions.
Sure Start Centres
Sure Start Centres provide integrated services for young children and their families. They are accessible to all and support the families in greatest need. The main purpose of the centres is to improve outcomes for young children and their families with a focus on the disadvantaged, so children are equipped for life and ready for school, no matter what their back ground or family circumstances.
The Department of Education has worked with...