Erika L. Weber
April 6, 2013
Dr. Betty Taylor
Education in Cambodia
The Kingdom of Cambodia, common referred to as Cambodia, is a beautiful country. It is located between Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand on the southern end of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Before starting my studies this semester, Spring 2013 at USF, I knew little of Cambodia. I met another IME student here at USF whose family fled Cambodia during the civil war that started in 1970. Life in Cambodia became more dangerous during the Khmer Rouge Regime from 1975-1979. She and her family sought refuge in the United States. I was fascinated with her story of struggle and wanted to learn more. I have since interviewed others from Cambodia who were also forced abroad during that time. I wondered how this civil war and Khmer Rouge affected Cambodia’s current educational system. In this paper, I explore that question. The estimated Cambodian population for 2013, under the King Norodom Sihamoni, is 15,205,539. The population’s median age is 23 years. 95 per cent of the people speak the official language of Khmer, but others speak French and English. Buddhism is the official religion, of which 96 per cent of Cambodians practice. Two percent are Muslim and a fraction more of the population is exercising other religions. (CIA, 2013) Most government policy takes place in the capital city Phnom Penh that is located in the south-central region of the country on the banks of the Mekong and Bassac Rivers. (CIA, 2013) Traditionally, most of the education in Cambodia took place in Budhist temples. The teaching was limited to mostly boys and was primarily Buddhist studies. Later, when the French colonized Cambodia in 1863, a limited educational system was put in place following the French model. In 1931, there were just seven high school graduates. Five years later in 1936, there was only an estimated 50,000 to 60,000 children enrolled in primary school. (Library of Congress Country Studies, 1987) Nearly 100 years later, the French left Cambodia, and a more wide-spread system of education came into place ranging from primary school to vocational school and universities. The educational system still followed the French example. The majority of schools were in the urban center of the country around Phnom Penh. This system was adequately serving the Cambodian population until the civil war in 1970. Between 1975–1979, the Khmer Rouge regime decimated most formal education and tried to eliminate all educated people. (Hidayat, 2010) A Cambodian Communist revolutionary turn dictator, Pol Pot, aimed a takeover of Cambodia. The plan included getting rid of people who may rebel so he could grow a new community from the ground up just the way he wanted. His aim was to eliminate the educated people. He ordered the teachers, educated adults, and even those who wore glasses to be killed or sent to labor camps. (Hidayat, 2010) People ran and were forced out into the rural areas. Under the Khmer Rouge regime, lead by Pol Pot, schools were closed. Many families fled to other countries. Traditionally, few rural people had a formal education. As the urban residents were flushed out of the country’s center to the rural outskirts, the rural people weren’t very welcoming to the city dwellers who didn’t know how to work in rural jobs. The formally educated became outcasts. The situation became worse; people were starving. The result was that many rural families fled Cambodia too. Pol Pot was responsible for decimating the educational system that was in place at the time in Cambodia. (Hidayat, 2010) “The effects of executions, forced labor, malnutrition, and poor medical care resulted in the deaths of approximately 25 percent of the Cambodian population.” (USAID) Cambodia’s economics and educational systems suffer from political occupations, war, and internal conflicts. After the Vietnam-Cambodia...
...in what is today southeast Cambodia and the extreme south of Vietnam. Its capital, Vyadhapura, probably was located near the present-day town of Ba Phnom in Prey Veng Province. The earliest historical reference to Funan is a Chinese description of a mission that visited the country in the 3rd century. The name Funan is largely believed to derive from the old khmer word 'Phnom' meaning mountain. The Funanese were likely of Austroasiatic origin. What the Funanese called themselves, however, is not known.
During this early period in Funan's history, the population was probably concentrated in villages along the Mekong River and along the Tonle Sap River below the Tonle Sap. Traffic and communications were mostly waterborne on the rivers and their delta tributaries. The area was a natural region for the development of an economy based on fishing and rice cultivation. There is considerable evidence that the Funanese economy depended on rice surpluses produced by an extensive inland irrigation system. Maritime trade played an extremely important role in the development of Funan, and the remains of what is believed to have been the kingdom's main port, Oc Eo (O'keo) (now part of Vietnam), contain Roman as well as Persian, Indian, and Greek artifacts.
By the 5th century, the state exercised control over the lower Mekong River area and the lands around the Tonle Sap. It also commanded tribute from smaller states in the area now comprising northern...
Student number: 20134571
Science 1 in the Early Years
Assessment: Item 1- Views of teaching and promoting science of young learners
The pedagogy of play can be hard to understand and part of the reason for this is it’s so difficult to explain how children learn by play because play isn’t simply; it is complex. Each child begins their early childhood education with a set of skills and prior knowledge that is influenced by their family, culture and past experiences (Fellows &Oakley, 2010). The past knowledge should become the foundation for developing an understanding of scientific concepts (Duschl, Schweingruber & Shouse, 2007). Children are naturally inquisitive, creative and aware of the world around them (Campbell & Jobling, 2012). Play is an important development tool and an effective way to teach children scientific concepts while using their prior knowledge (Preston, Mules, Baker & Frost, 2007). Learning science through play shows children that science is useful and enjoyable and is a significant aspect of the real world (Bulunuz, 2013). This essay will review teaching science through play, theorists who support play and the way in which the Australian curriculum and EYLF support play pedagogy.
Science and Play
Play pedagogy is a context for learning through which children organise and make sense of their social worlds, as they engage actively with people, objects and representations. Research shows...
... Educational In CambodiaEducation is very important means to train and build up human resources for development of each country and it is also important for development of child as person. However, educational system in Cambodia has suffered too much during Khmer Rouge Regime from 1975 to 1979. After that period, the government has tried to improve it by cooperated and collaborated with external aid and non-governmental organization (NGOs). According to the Cambodian constitution, it states that “the state shall provide free primary and secondary education to all citizens in public school. Citizens shall receive education for at least seven years”. Nowadays, though the pupils have no pay the fee, they still have to spend money on other things such as stationery, textbooks, contribution fee etc. Moreover, some provinces students are asked to spent money to teacher for fee; this is the problem that prevent pupil from poor families from attending school.
About a half a million Cambodian children from 6 to 11 years old have no access to school, then 50percent of those who entered grade one dropped out of school and had to repeat the class. Those problems are caused by video games, karaoke and the presence of brothel for the students in city, and for female pupils, they could not attend school because of many problems. First, parents are poor, so they cannot provide children to...
...Kingdom of Cambodia: King Norodom Sihanouk wanted Consolidate/Retain Power
-Khmer Republic: General Lon Nol = Attain/Maintain Power
-Communist Party of Kampuchea: Pol Pot = Overthrow Khmer Republic
2. Sihanouk Policy (foreign and Domestic)
-Cambodia foreign policy was based on Neutrality (non-alignment) within the region
-Sihanouk received large amounts of aid from the USA
*-Sihanouk maintained strong relations with China and Vietnam
+Did not believe US could win the war, and thus:
-Did not want to align with a loser
-Did not want to upset with eventual winner (vietnam)
+Cambodia Domestic Politics became polarized among classes:
-King Sihanouk Urging to retain power
-Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK – Khmer Rouge) led insurgency against the government.
3. Conference in Bandung:
-29 countries, mostly newly independent, representing 25% of the planet and 1.5 billion people
-the conference’s stated aims were to:
+Promote Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation
+Oppose colonialism or neocolonialism by the either the United States or the Soviet Union in the Cold War, or any otherImperialistic nations.
-The conference was an important step toward the formation of the Non-Aligned Movement (Neutrality)
-Event attended by Cambodia’s King Sihanouk
4. Destabilizing force in Cambodia:
-US support General Lon Nol
-China support Khmer rough
-US used “strategy bombing” (...
...Terror was all anyone felt anymore in Cambodia. Terror and anxiety as people counted the days until tragedy would take over life, as they knew it. There was no solace to be found and no comfort to be given. The entire nation was a shambles as everywhere families, friends, and individuals ran to escape the nightmare of war and rebellion. There was neither enough food nor water, so starvation made its home among people. Poverty went up as jobs became scarce and the death toll increased as people died, tens of hundreds a week. Survival became the hellish game of the people now, and the gamble that Somalisse Ros and her family learned to take in order to live. Somalisse Ros was one among the many terrorized people that endured the pain inflicted by the Communist group known as the Khmer Rouge. To understand the horrifying situations imposed on the Cambodian people, it is important to gain further knowledge about the Khmer Rouge and their purpose and the motives for their barbaric treatment of a nation and its people.
In the 1970’s the civil war that had shaken Cambodia for many years had finally ended, the leading group that acquired the victory being the Khmer Rouge. This group—initially known as the Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK)—was later modified into the popularized title, Khmer Rouge and was responsible for taking over the Khmer Republic of Cambodia. It was a secret organization so hidden that no one outside of the CPK knew...
Officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Phnom-Penh is both its capital city and its largest city. Their government is a constitutional monarchy operated as a parliamentary representative democracy. Meaning they have a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution.
Theravada Buddhism is the official religion of Cambodia, which is practiced by more than 95 percent of the population. The Theravada Buddhist tradition is widespread and strong in all provinces, with an estimated 4,392 monastery temples throughout the country. The vast majority of ethnic Khmers are Buddhist, and there are close associations between Buddhism, cultural traditions, and daily life. Adherence to Buddhism generally is considered intrinsic to the country's ethnic and cultural identity. Religion in Cambodia, including Buddhism, was suppressed by the Khmer Rouge during the late 1970s but has since experienced a revival. In 2011 Cambodia's per capita income in PPP is $2,470 and $1,040 in nominal per capita. Cambodia's per capita income is rapidly increasing but is low compared to other countries in the region. Most rural households depend on agriculture and its related sub-sectors. Rice, fish, timber, garments and rubber are Cambodia's major exports. The International Rice Research...
Cambodia: Unearthing the Past
Political Science 149
Reader: Ilham Hosseini
The distribution of justice regarding a buried for over twenty-eight years story of gross violations of human rights in Cambodia triggers the question of how to work out a strategy that allows for the creation of institutions that are simultaneously working in accord with international standards of justice and adequately responding to the needs of Cambodians themselves. The aim of this research is less concerned with outlining legal procedures that the United Nations Security Council should act upon while conducting the tribunal than analyzing a set of conditions that should be fulfilled before the international body of justice holds proceedings in Cambodia. This analysis assays a set of analogous historical and political aspects that occurred in both East Timor and Cambodia that could impede the United Nations’s (UN) warrant to establish international tribunals in both nation-states. Moreover, as the research looks into the framework of UN action in East Timor, it concludes that the UN’s plan of establishing justice had not adequately responded to those factors; therefore, the process of conducting trials according to international standards was curtailed. The lack of a coherent strategy and worked out alternatives for those factors before that trial was conducted could create a...
...brief description and history of company, global sales volume, variants, ingredients, packaging formats, target market and positioning, marketing and promotions, key markets, channels and example pricing.
North America: Canada, USA
Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela
West Europe: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK
East Europe: Bulgaria, Czech Rep., Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine
Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, South Africa, Tunisia
Middle East: Iran, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, UAE
Asia Pacific: Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
Australasia: Australia, New Zealand
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